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COSMO ontology, version 0.90-1751 by Patrick Cassidy last edit 20210108: 1 AM

   Intended as an OWL-format ontology of primitive and common concepts suitable for use
      as an interlingua for semantic interoperability or language understanding.
   Includes representations of common concepts learned by children at an early age, plus
          the most frequently used words of English..
   Has representations of more than 12,000 of the most frequently occurring words  
           in text corpora, with references to WordNet and 
          OpenCYC categories having (approximately) the same meaning.

As of Rev1743: 23647 owl:Classes
               22,198 distinct Single-word WordNet labels
               23,961 Single-word labels including also  en and ldoce labels not in WordNet
               18,642 distinct WordNet synsets linked (some appear more than once)

Current phase of development : Current phase is to add in 4556 Words in the BYU 20,000 most frequent not already in the COSMO:

   Finished adding in 519 words from the most common 10,000 words in the BYU most-frequent list
          not already in COSMO:  rev 1727  20200915
   Finished adding in 438 words from the most common 8000 words in the BYU most-frequent list
          not already in COSMO:  rev 1707  20200718
   Finished adding in 1720 words from an American Sign Language on-line 
     dictionary  not already  among the 'wordnet'. or 'en' tags, nor in 
     the openCYC nor BNC lists. rev 1689  20200409
   Finished adding in representations of about 1400 common words in OpenCYC 
            not already represented in earlier versions at rev1623.
   Finished adding in representations of the 6300 most frequent words in the BNC corpus
     at rev 1577.

  Brief history:
    Effort at finding  the full set of semantic primitives started with 
      representation of the'defining vocabulary' of 2130 words in the 
      Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English.  (LDOCE).
    The Longman-LDOCE vocabulary words and their WordNet mappings were
      completed to end of 'Z' words (mapping completed) At rev1093. Started adding 
      WN labels to entries that have ID's the same as common words, but which
      were not labeled (1600 of them at rev 1139) 20160423.  Finished 'Z' words.  
      Added additional 900 words in the vocabulary of a 6-year old (from 1903) at rev 1283
     Has 19 top-level classes under 'Thing'

  The representation of English words was expanded by adding in words from the 5000 most
     frequent words in the BYU corpus, and words from the 6300 most frequent word
     in the BNC corpus (that were not in the BYU list).  Finished at rev1577 20190729.

Protege 3.5 Metrics for rev1751f (20210108: 1 AM) ca. 24059 OWL Classes , ca 44 of which are synonyms ca. 1357 relations ('properties' not including 84 datatype) Ca. 21216 restrictions [ca. 284 metatypes (rfds:Class) ] *** Consistency Check: Prot 3.5 Fact++ for rev1751f (20210108: 1 AM) on XPS15 4661 sec OK Prot 3.5 Pellet for rev1751f (20210108: 1 AM) on XPS15 3511 sec OK Prot 5.2 Fact++ rev1751f (20210108: 1 AM) on Toshiba 8731 sec OK

Protege 5.2 Metrics for rev1735f (20201016: 11 PM) 23542 Classes (includes metaClasses) 1353 object properties 83 data properties 57667 'subclass' axioms 255 'disjoint' axioms 80 'Equivalent Classes' axioms 44 'Annotation Properties' 634 'SubObjectPropertyOf' axioms 344 'InverseObject Properties'

   Uses elements of the OpenCyc OWL version 0.78, SUMO, 
     BFO and DOLCE ontologies, as well as elements created specifically for COSMO.
     Added ontology elements corresponding to common English words (among the 5000 most
     frequent in the BYU corpus).  Continuing with addition of representations of
     other common English words from an American Sign Language dictionary..

     Parts of COSMO were closely aligned with elements of
     other public ontologies such as OpenCyc, SUMO, and BFO,in order to ease the
     translation of COSMO ontologies to those other structures, but the 
     conceptual structure of COSMO (hierarchy and relations) is too different from 
     those other ontologies to allow simplistic automatic translation; it is
     anticipated that translation will be possible, but will require 'bridging
     axioms' to convert the terms and syntax of COSMO to those of any other
     ontology, and vice-versa.  The meanings of the COSMO elements must be interpreted 
     only from the structure of the COSMO ontology and from the full COSMO documentation.
         **NOTE** According to the documentation of those other ontologies, 
     they are **freely usable** by the public, though they remain copyrighted 
     by their originators and appear to require only acknowledgment of their
     use (more detail below).  No copyright restrictions are attached to 
     materials added in the COSMO project, therefore the only copyright
     restrictions for use of this ontology are those placed by
     the developers of the OpenCyc, SUMO, and BFO on parts derived
     directly from those works.  Those derived parts will include some
     of the labels, and parts of the documentation, but the hierarchy and relations
     are those **specifically created** for COSMO, regardless of whether documentation
     or names were adopted from other ontologies.  If necessary, the .
     documentation text or names can be changed to avoid copyright issues.

      ******************   Source Materials  ****************************
      *****  WordNet, OpenCYC, SUMO, Random House Webster  **************

     Relation of COSMO to other ontologies:
         The COSMO ontology has a structure and basic viewpoint that
     differs in some significant parts from that of the ontologies from which it 
     has derived materials, and the main parts of the hierarchical 
     structure and relations are not primarily derived from any of 
     the referenced ontologies, though some of the hierarchy is included because
     of its use in WordNet. Most basically, the representations 
     were intended to adhere as closely as possible to **linguistic intuitions**
     about the meaning and usage of English terms, while specifying
     the meanings in a logically precise manner.  Every element added to COSMO
     is individually evaluated for its utility and validity within the conceptual
     structure of the COSMO ontology, and is not derived or adopted solely or
     mainly on the basis of the appearance of a similar concept in another ontology.
     Certain individual subtype relations are similar to those in OpenCyc or SUMO;
     but because the basic hierarchical structure of COSMO differs from the
     other ontologies, logical inference using these relations will arrive at
     conclusions that cannot be aligned directly with either OpenCyc 
     or SUMO.  No simplistic mapping between COSMO and these other ontologies is likely to 
     enable accurate inference.  The documentation derived from OpenCyc and SUMO 
     is provided as a means to **reference** similar concepts in
     those other ontologies, and to explain similarities and differences, for
     the convenience of those who are familiar with those ontologies.
     A few of the entres were included solely because of their presence in OpenCYC,
     but these are usually specific to CYC and are icluded solely to permit alignment with
     CYC concepts for those who are using the full CYC ontology. These are
     not essential to the structure of the ontology and could be removed.

     Contents derived from OpenCyc and SUMO are copyrighted and
        made freely available for public use under the terms found
        in the documentation for those works (see below).  Materials
        added specifically for the COSMO project are not copyrighted.

     The contents derived from SUMO are copyrighted by the IEEE and
         made freely available for public use.  For more detail see:
     A description of the SUMO project can be found in:
         Niles, I., and Pease, A.  2001.  Towards a Standard Upper Ontology.  In 
     Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Formal Ontology in 
     Information Systems (FOIS-2001), Chris Welty and Barry Smith, eds, 
         Ogunquit, Maine, October 17-19, 2001.

     The Contents of the OpenCyc OWL version used in this project are found at:
     OpenCyc materials are copyrighted and licensed for free public use
     under the GNU 'LGPL' license.  The OpenCyc documentation reads:

     ************  OpenCyc copyright notice ******************
      Copyright Information OpenCyc Knowledge
             Base Copyright 2001-2004 Cycorp, Inc., Austin, TX, USA. All
             rights reserved. OpenCyc Knowledge Server Copyright
             2001-2004 Cycorp, Inc., Austin, TX, USA. All rights
             reserved. Other copyrights may be found in various files.
             The OpenCyc Knowledge Base The OpenCyc Knowledge Base
             consists of code, written in the declarative language CycL,
             that represents or supports the representation of facts and
             rules pertaining to consensus reality. OpenCyc is licensed
             using the GNU Lesser General Public License, whose text can
             also be found on this volume. The OpenCyc CycL code base is
             the "library" referred to in the LGPL license. The
             terms of this license equally apply to renamings and other
             logically equivalent reformulations of the Knowledge Base
             (or portions thereof) in any natural or formal language.
        See for more information.
     ************  OpenCyc copyright notice ******************

     ************  Random House Webster Electronic Dictionary  ******************
    "RHW": Definitions described as coming from the 'Random House Webster' (RHW)
         refer to the Electronic Dictionary 'Random House Webster's
         Unabridged Dictionary' on CD (2002) from Random House, Inc.
         and Multimedia 2000 Inc.(a paperback version is still available
     OTher dictionaries:
     "MWD": The Merriam-Wester Dictionary CD-ROM version
     "MWCD"  The Merriam-Wester Collegiate Dictionary (print version)
     "RHUD" or "RHUDEL"   The Random House Dictionary of the English Language (Print version,
           second edition, unabridged, 1987)

     Most of the entries have annotation references to WordNet 
     ('wordnet' and 'wnsense' relations).  The WordNet version referenced
     is WordNet 2.1 (see
     Because the WordNet hierarchy differs in a number of places 
     from that of COSMO, these  pointers are only informative, and may not
     be useful for accurate  automatic conversion of WordNet sense tags (synsets) to 
     the corresponding senses in COSMO, but at least *part* of those WordNet word
     senses that are referenced will correspond to the intended meaning of the
     COSMO ontology element, and those words will, in some context, refer to 
     the intended COSMO sense.

Table of Contents

  1. Classes
  2. Object Properties
  3. Functional Properties
  4. Datatype Properties
  5. Annotation Properties
  6. Namespaces
  7. Legend


Pictures say 1,000 words
Figure 1: Ontology overview