Adrien Barton
Arnaud Rosier
Jean-François Ethier
Paul Fabry
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Cardio Vascular Disease Ontology
CVDO is an ontology of cardiovascular diseases structured on OBO foundry’s principle and based on BFO. CVDO reorganizes and completes DOID cardiovascular diseases following OGMS tripartite model of disease, and builds its taxonomy of diseases largely by automatic reasoning.
2024-05-17
Relates an entity in the ontology to the name of the variable that is used to represent it in the code that generates the BFO OWL file from the lispy specification.
Really of interest to developers only
BFO OWL specification label
Relates an entity in the ontology to the term that is used to represent it in the the CLIF specification of BFO2
Person:Alan Ruttenberg
Really of interest to developers only
BFO CLIF specification label
This annotation property is created temporarily for better visibility of the distinction between DOID definitions and updated CVDO definition (when a DOID definition of a class did not need to be changed, no additional CVDO definition was included). Ultimately, 'CVDO definition' annotation properties should be replaced by 'definition' annotation properties.
CVDO definition
This annotation property is created temporarily for better visibility of the CVDO notes, in particular those that concern DOID classes. Ultimately, 'CVDO editor note' annotation properties should be replaced by 'editor note' annotation properties, or removed.
CVDO editor note
editor preferred term
The concise, meaningful, and human-friendly name for a class or property preferred by the ontology developers. (US-English)
PERSON:Daniel Schober
GROUP:OBI:<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/obi>
editor preferred term
example of usage
has curation status
PERSON:Alan Ruttenberg
PERSON:Bill Bug
PERSON:Melanie Courtot
OBI_0000281
has curation status
definition
The official definition, explaining the meaning of a class or property. Shall be Aristotelian, formalized and normalized. Can be augmented with colloquial definitions.
PERSON:Daniel Schober
GROUP:OBI:<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/obi>
definition
definition
editor note
An administrative note intended for its editor. It may not be included in the publication version of the ontology, so it should contain nothing necessary for end users to understand the ontology.
PERSON:Daniel Schober
GROUP:OBI:<http://purl.obfoundry.org/obo/obi>
editor note
editor note
definition editor
Name of editor entering the definition in the file. The definition editor is a point of contact for information regarding the term. The definition editor may be, but is not always, the author of the definition, which may have been worked upon by several people
PERSON:Daniel Schober
GROUP:OBI:<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/obi>
definition editor
definition editor
term editor
alternative term
definition source
formal citation, e.g. identifier in external database to indicate / attribute source(s) for the definition. Free text indicate / attribute source(s) for the definition. EXAMPLE: Author Name, URI, MeSH Term C04, PUBMED ID, Wiki uri on 31.01.2007
PERSON:Daniel Schober
GROUP:OBI:<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/obi>
Discussion on obo-discuss mailing-list, see http://bit.ly/hgm99w
definition source
definition source
curator note
An administrative note of use for a curator but of no use for a user
PERSON:Alan Ruttenberg
curator note
curator note
imported from
elucidation
has associated axiom(nl)
has associated axiom(fol)
has axiom label
gram-positive bacterial infectious disease
subset_property
has_alternative_id
database_cross_reference
has_exact_synonym
has_obo_namespace
has_related_synonym
in_subset
inheres-in_at
inheresInAt
b inheres_in c at t =Def. b is a dependent continuant & c is an independent continuant that is not a spatial region & b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [051-002])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'inheres in at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'inheres in@en(x,y,t)'.
BFO 2 Reference: Inherence is a subrelation of s-depends_on which holds between a dependent continuant and an independent continuant that is not a spatial region. Since dependent continuants cannot migrate from one independent continuant bearer to another, it follows that if b s-depends_on independent continuant c at some time, then b s-depends_on c at all times at which a exists. Inherence is in this sense redundantly time-indexed.For example, consider the particular instance of openness inhering in my mouth at t as I prepare to take a bite out of a donut, followed by a closedness at t+1 when I bite the donut and start chewing. The openness instance is then shortlived, and to say that it s-depends_on my mouth at all times at which this openness exists, means: at all times during this short life. Every time you make a fist, you make a new (instance of the universal) fist. (Every time your hand has the fist-shaped quality, there is created a new instance of the universal fist-shaped quality.)
BFO2 Reference: independent continuant that is not a spatial region
BFO2 Reference: specifically dependent continuant
(iff (inheresInAt a b t) (and (DependentContinuant a) (IndependentContinuant b) (not (SpatialRegion b)) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [051-002]
inheres in at all times
b inheres_in c at t =Def. b is a dependent continuant & c is an independent continuant that is not a spatial region & b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [051-002])
(iff (inheresInAt a b t) (and (DependentContinuant a) (IndependentContinuant b) (not (SpatialRegion b)) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [051-002]
bearer-of_st
bearerOfAt
b bearer_of c at t =Def. c s-depends_on b at t & b is an independent continuant that is not a spatial region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [053-004])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'bearer of at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'bearer of@en'(x,y,t)
BFO2 Reference: independent continuant that is not a spatial region
BFO2 Reference: specifically dependent continuant
(iff (bearerOfAt a b t) (and (specificallyDependsOnAt b a t) (IndependentContinuant a) (not (SpatialRegion a)) (existsAt b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [053-004]
bearer of at some time
b bearer_of c at t =Def. c s-depends_on b at t & b is an independent continuant that is not a spatial region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [053-004])
(iff (bearerOfAt a b t) (and (specificallyDependsOnAt b a t) (IndependentContinuant a) (not (SpatialRegion a)) (existsAt b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [053-004]
realized-in
realizedIn
[copied from inverse property 'realizes'] to say that b realizes c at t is to assert that there is some material entity d & b is a process which has participant d at t & c is a disposition or role of which d is bearer_of at t& the type instantiated by b is correlated with the type instantiated by c. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [059-003])
if a realizable entity b is realized in a process p, then p stands in the has_participant relation to the bearer of b. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [106-002])
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (RealizableEntity x) (Process y) (realizesAt y x t) (bearerOfAt z x t)) (hasParticipantAt y z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [106-002]
realized in
if a realizable entity b is realized in a process p, then p stands in the has_participant relation to the bearer of b. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [106-002])
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (RealizableEntity x) (Process y) (realizesAt y x t) (bearerOfAt z x t)) (hasParticipantAt y z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [106-002]
realizes
realizes
to say that b realizes c at t is to assert that there is some material entity d & b is a process which has participant d at t & c is a disposition or role of which d is bearer_of at t& the type instantiated by b is correlated with the type instantiated by c. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [059-003])
(forall (x y t) (if (realizesAt x y t) (and (Process x) (or (Disposition y) (Role y)) (exists (z) (and (MaterialEntity z) (hasParticipantAt x z t) (bearerOfAt z y t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [059-003]
realizes
to say that b realizes c at t is to assert that there is some material entity d & b is a process which has participant d at t & c is a disposition or role of which d is bearer_of at t& the type instantiated by b is correlated with the type instantiated by c. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [059-003])
(forall (x y t) (if (realizesAt x y t) (and (Process x) (or (Disposition y) (Role y)) (exists (z) (and (MaterialEntity z) (hasParticipantAt x z t) (bearerOfAt z y t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [059-003]
participates-in_st
participatesInAt
[copied from inverse property 'has participant at some time'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has participant at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'has participant@en'(x,y,t)
[copied from inverse property 'has participant at some time'] BFO 2 Reference: Spatial regions do not participate in processes.
[copied from inverse property 'has participant at some time'] BFO2 Reference: independent continuant that is not a spatial region, specifically dependent continuant, generically dependent continuant
[copied from inverse property 'has participant at some time'] BFO2 Reference: process
[copied from inverse property 'has participant at some time'] has_participant is an instance-level relation between a process, a continuant, and a temporal region at which the continuant participates in some way in the process. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [086-003])
participates in at some time
has-participant_st
hasParticipantAt
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has participant at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'has participant@en'(x,y,t)
BFO 2 Reference: Spatial regions do not participate in processes.
BFO2 Reference: independent continuant that is not a spatial region, specifically dependent continuant, generically dependent continuant
BFO2 Reference: process
has_participant is an instance-level relation between a process, a continuant, and a temporal region at which the continuant participates in some way in the process. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [086-003])
if b has_participant c at t & c is a generically dependent continuant, then there is some independent continuant that is not a spatial region d, and which is such that c g-depends on d at t & b s-depends_on d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [091-003])
if b has_participant c at t & c is a specifically dependent continuant, then there is some independent continuant that is not a spatial region d, c s-depends_on d at t & b s-depends_on d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [090-003])
if b has_participant c at t then b is an occurrent. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [087-001])
if b has_participant c at t then c exists at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [089-001])
if b has_participant c at t then c is a continuant. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [088-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (hasParticipantAt x y t) (GenericallyDependentContinuant y)) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (not (SpatialRegion z)) (genericallyDependsOn y z t) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [091-003]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (hasParticipantAt x y t) (SpecificallyDependentContinuant y)) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (not (SpatialRegion z)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t) (specificallyDependsOnAt y z t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [090-003]
(forall (x y t) (if (hasParticipantAt x y t) (Continuant y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [088-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (hasParticipantAt x y t) (Occurrent x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [087-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (hasParticipantAt x y t) (existsAt y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [089-001]
has participant at some time
has_participant is an instance-level relation between a process, a continuant, and a temporal region at which the continuant participates in some way in the process. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [086-003])
if b has_participant c at t & c is a generically dependent continuant, then there is some independent continuant that is not a spatial region d, and which is such that c g-depends on d at t & b s-depends_on d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [091-003])
if b has_participant c at t & c is a specifically dependent continuant, then there is some independent continuant that is not a spatial region d, c s-depends_on d at t & b s-depends_on d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [090-003])
if b has_participant c at t then b is an occurrent. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [087-001])
if b has_participant c at t then c exists at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [089-001])
if b has_participant c at t then c is a continuant. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [088-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (hasParticipantAt x y t) (GenericallyDependentContinuant y)) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (not (SpatialRegion z)) (genericallyDependsOn y z t) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [091-003]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (hasParticipantAt x y t) (SpecificallyDependentContinuant y)) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (not (SpatialRegion z)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t) (specificallyDependsOnAt y z t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [090-003]
(forall (x y t) (if (hasParticipantAt x y t) (Continuant y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [088-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (hasParticipantAt x y t) (Occurrent x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [087-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (hasParticipantAt x y t) (existsAt y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [089-001]
concretized-by_st
[copied from inverse property 'concretizes at some time'] You may concretize a piece of software by installing it in your computer
[copied from inverse property 'concretizes at some time'] You may concretize a recipe that you find in a cookbook by turning it into a plan which exists as a realizable dependent continuant in your head.
[copied from inverse property 'concretizes at some time'] you may concretize a poem as a pattern of memory traces in your head
[copied from inverse property 'concretizes at some time'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'concretizes at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'concretizes@en'(x,y,t)
[copied from inverse property 'concretizes at some time'] b concretizes c at t means: b is a specifically dependent continuant & c is a generically dependent continuant & for some independent continuant that is not a spatial region d, b s-depends_on d at t & c g-depends on d at t & if c migrates from bearer d to another bearer e than a copy of b will be created in e. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [075-002])
concretized by at some time
concretizes_st
concretizesAt
You may concretize a piece of software by installing it in your computer
You may concretize a recipe that you find in a cookbook by turning it into a plan which exists as a realizable dependent continuant in your head.
you may concretize a poem as a pattern of memory traces in your head
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'concretizes at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'concretizes@en'(x,y,t)
b concretizes c at t means: b is a specifically dependent continuant & c is a generically dependent continuant & for some independent continuant that is not a spatial region d, b s-depends_on d at t & c g-depends on d at t & if c migrates from bearer d to another bearer e than a copy of b will be created in e. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [075-002])
if b g-depends on c at some time t, then there is some d, such that d concretizes b at t and d s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [076-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (concretizesAt x y t) (and (SpecificallyDependentContinuant x) (GenericallyDependentContinuant y) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t) (genericallyDependsOnAt y z t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [075-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (genericallyDependsOnAt x y t) (exists (z) (and (concretizesAt z x t) (specificallyDependsOnAt z y t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [076-001]
concretizes at some time
b concretizes c at t means: b is a specifically dependent continuant & c is a generically dependent continuant & for some independent continuant that is not a spatial region d, b s-depends_on d at t & c g-depends on d at t & if c migrates from bearer d to another bearer e than a copy of b will be created in e. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [075-002])
if b g-depends on c at some time t, then there is some d, such that d concretizes b at t and d s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [076-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (concretizesAt x y t) (and (SpecificallyDependentContinuant x) (GenericallyDependentContinuant y) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t) (genericallyDependsOnAt y z t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [075-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (genericallyDependsOnAt x y t) (exists (z) (and (concretizesAt z x t) (specificallyDependsOnAt z y t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [076-001]
occurs-in
occursIn
CVDO adds the property chain that if A occurs_in B and B located_in_at_all_times C, then A occurs_in C. This is used for a few inferences in the ontology, but CVDO can be used without problem without this property chain.
b occurs_in c =def b is a process and c is a material entity or immaterial entity& there exists a spatiotemporal region r and b occupies_spatiotemporal_region r.& forall(t) if b exists_at t then c exists_at t & there exist spatial regions s and s’ where & b spatially_projects_onto s at t& c is occupies_spatial_region s’ at t& s is a proper_continuant_part_of s’ at t [XXX-001
occurs in
contains-process
containsProcess
[copied from inverse property 'occurs in'] b occurs_in c =def b is a process and c is a material entity or immaterial entity& there exists a spatiotemporal region r and b occupies_spatiotemporal_region r.& forall(t) if b exists_at t then c exists_at t & there exist spatial regions s and s’ where & b spatially_projects_onto s at t& c is occupies_spatial_region s’ at t& s is a proper_continuant_part_of s’ at t [XXX-001
contains process
s-depends-on_at
specificallyDependsOn
A pain s-depends_on the organism that is experiencing the pain
a gait s-depends_on the walking object. (All at some specific time.)
a shape s-depends_on the shaped object
one-sided s-dependence of a dependent continuant on an independent continuant: an instance of headache s-depends_on some head
one-sided s-dependence of a dependent continuant on an independent continuant: an instance of temperature s-depends_on some organism
one-sided s-dependence of a process on something: a process of cell death s-depends_on a cell
one-sided s-dependence of a process on something: an instance of seeing (a relational process) s-depends_on some organism and on some seen entity, which may be an occurrent or a continuant
one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on another: a process of answering a question is dependent on a prior process of asking a question
one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on another: a process of obeying a command is dependent on a prior process of issuing a command
one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on multiple independent continuants: a relational process of hitting a ball with a cricket bat
one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on multiple independent continuants: a relational process of paying cash to a merchant in exchange for a bag of figs
reciprocal s-dependence between occurrents: a process of buying and the associated process of selling
reciprocal s-dependence between occurrents: a process of increasing the volume of a portion of gas while temperature remains constant and the associated process of decreasing the pressure exerted by the gas
reciprocal s-dependence between occurrents: in a game of chess the process of playing with the white pieces is mutually dependent on the process of playing with the black pieces
the one-sided dependence of an occurrent on an independent continuant: football match on the players, the ground, the ball
the one-sided dependence of an occurrent on an independent continuant: handwave on a hand
the three-sided reciprocal s-dependence of the hue, saturation and brightness of a color [45
the three-sided reciprocal s-dependence of the pitch, timbre and volume of a tone [45
the two-sided reciprocal s-dependence of the roles of husband and wife [20
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'specifically depends on at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'specifically depends on@en(x,y,t)'.
BFO 2 Reference: An entity – for example an act of communication or a game of football – can s-depends_on more than one entity. Complex phenomena for example in the psychological and social realms (such as inferring, commanding and requesting) or in the realm of multi-organismal biological processes (such as infection and resistance), will involve multiple families of dependence relations, involving both continuants and occurrents [1, 4, 28
BFO 2 Reference: S-dependence is just one type of dependence among many; it is what, in the literature, is referred to as ‘existential dependence’ [87, 46, 65, 20
BFO 2 Reference: the relation of s-depends_on does not in every case require simultaneous existence of its relata. Note the difference between such cases and the cases of continuant universals defined historically: the act of answering depends existentially on the prior act of questioning; the human being who was baptized or who answered a question does not himself depend existentially on the prior act of baptism or answering. He would still exist even if these acts had never taken place.
BFO2 Reference: specifically dependent continuant\; process; process boundary
To say that b s-depends_on a at t is to say that b and c do not share common parts & b is of its nature such that it cannot exist unless c exists & b is not a boundary of c and b is not a site of which c is the host [64
If b is s-depends_on something at some time, then b is not a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [052-001])
If b s-depends_on something at t, then there is some c, which is an independent continuant and not a spatial region, such that b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [136-001])
If occurrent b s-depends_on some independent continuant c at t, then b s-depends_on c at every time at which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [015-002])
an entity does not s-depend_on any of its (continuant or occurrent) parts or on anything it is part of. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [013-002])
if b s-depends_on c at t & c s-depends_on d at t then b s-depends_on d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [054-002])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (Entity x) (or (continuantPartOfAt y x t) (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (occurrentPartOf x y) (occurrentPartOf y x))) (not (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [013-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (Occurrent x) (IndependentContinuant y) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)) (forall (t_1) (if (existsAt x t_1) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t_1))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [015-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (not (SpatialRegion z)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [136-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t) (specificallyDependsOnAt y z t)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [054-002]
(forall (x) (if (exists (y t) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)) (not (MaterialEntity x)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [052-001]
specifically depends on at all times
If b is s-depends_on something at some time, then b is not a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [052-001])
If b s-depends_on something at t, then there is some c, which is an independent continuant and not a spatial region, such that b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [136-001])
If occurrent b s-depends_on some independent continuant c at t, then b s-depends_on c at every time at which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [015-002])
an entity does not s-depend_on any of its (continuant or occurrent) parts or on anything it is part of. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [013-002])
if b s-depends_on c at t & c s-depends_on d at t then b s-depends_on d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [054-002])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (Entity x) (or (continuantPartOfAt y x t) (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (occurrentPartOf x y) (occurrentPartOf y x))) (not (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [013-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (Occurrent x) (IndependentContinuant y) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)) (forall (t_1) (if (existsAt x t_1) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t_1))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [015-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (not (SpatialRegion z)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [136-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t) (specificallyDependsOnAt y z t)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [054-002]
(forall (x) (if (exists (y t) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)) (not (MaterialEntity x)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [052-001]
f-of_at
functionOfAt
a function_of b at t =Def. a is a function and a inheres_in b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [067-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'function of at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'function of@en(x,y,t)'.
(iff (functionOf a b t) (and (Function a) (inheresInAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [067-001]
function of at all times
a function_of b at t =Def. a is a function and a inheres_in b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [067-001])
(iff (functionOf a b t) (and (Function a) (inheresInAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [067-001]
q-of_at
qualityOfAt
b quality_of c at t = Def. b is a quality & c is an independent continuant that is not a spatial region & b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [056-002])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'quality of at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'quality of@en(x,y,t)'.
(iff (qualityOfAt a b t) (and (Quality a) (IndependentContinuant b) (not (SpatialRegion b)) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [056-002]
quality of at all times
b quality_of c at t = Def. b is a quality & c is an independent continuant that is not a spatial region & b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [056-002])
(iff (qualityOfAt a b t) (and (Quality a) (IndependentContinuant b) (not (SpatialRegion b)) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [056-002]
r-of_at
roleOfAt
a role_of b at t =Def. a is a role and a inheres_in b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [065-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'role of at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'role of@en(x,y,t)'.
(iff (roleOfAt a b t) (and (Role a) (inheresInAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [065-001]
role of at all times
a role_of b at t =Def. a is a role and a inheres_in b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [065-001])
(iff (roleOfAt a b t) (and (Role a) (inheresInAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [065-001]
located-in_at
locatedInAt
Mary located_in Salzburg
the Empire State Building located_in New York.
this portion of cocaine located_in this portion of blood
this stem cell located_in this portion of bone marrow
your arm located_in your body
b located_in c at t = Def. b and c are independent continuants, and the region at which b is located at t is a (proper or improper) continuant_part_of the region at which c is located at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [045-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'located in at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'located in@en(x,y,t)'.
BFO2 Reference: independent continuant
Located_in is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [046-001])
for all independent continuants b, c, and d: if b continuant_part_of c at t & c located_in d at t, then b located_in d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [048-001])
for all independent continuants b, c, and d: if b located_in c at t & c continuant_part_of d at t, then b located_in d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [049-001])
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (IndependentContinuant y) (IndependentContinuant z) (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (locatedInAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [048-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (IndependentContinuant y) (IndependentContinuant z) (locatedInAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [049-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (locatedInAt x y t) (locatedInAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [046-001]
(iff (locatedInAt a b t) (and (IndependentContinuant a) (IndependentContinuant b) (exists (r_1 r_2) (and (occupiesSpatialRegionAt a r_1 t) (occupiesSpatialRegionAt b r_2 t) (continuantPartOfAt r_1 r_2 t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [045-001]
located in at all times
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (IndependentContinuant y) (IndependentContinuant z) (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (locatedInAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [048-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (IndependentContinuant y) (IndependentContinuant z) (locatedInAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [049-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (locatedInAt x y t) (locatedInAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [046-001]
(iff (locatedInAt a b t) (and (IndependentContinuant a) (IndependentContinuant b) (exists (r_1 r_2) (and (occupiesSpatialRegionAt a r_1 t) (occupiesSpatialRegionAt b r_2 t) (continuantPartOfAt r_1 r_2 t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [045-001]
b located_in c at t = Def. b and c are independent continuants, and the region at which b is located at t is a (proper or improper) continuant_part_of the region at which c is located at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [045-001])
Located_in is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [046-001])
for all independent continuants b, c, and d: if b continuant_part_of c at t & c located_in d at t, then b located_in d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [048-001])
for all independent continuants b, c, and d: if b located_in c at t & c continuant_part_of d at t, then b located_in d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [049-001])
located-at-r_st
occupiesSpatialRegionAt
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'occupies spatial region at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'occupies spatial region@en'(x,y,t)
BFO2 Reference: independent continuant
BFO2 Reference: spatial region
b occupies_spatial_region r at t means that r is a spatial region in which independent continuant b is exactly located (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [041-002])
every region r is occupies_spatial_region r at all times. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [042-002])
if b occupies_spatial_region r at t & b continuant_part_of b at t, then there is some r which is continuant_part_of r at t such that b occupies_spatial_region r at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [043-001])
(forall (r t) (if (Region r) (occupiesSpatialRegionAt r r t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [042-002]
(forall (x r t) (if (occupiesSpatialRegionAt x r t) (and (SpatialRegion r) (IndependentContinuant x)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [041-002]
(forall (x y r_1 t) (if (and (occupiesSpatialRegionAt x r_1 t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)) (exists (r_2) (and (continuantPartOfAt r_2 r_1 t) (occupiesSpatialRegionAt y r_2 t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [043-001]
occupies spatial region at some time
b occupies_spatial_region r at t means that r is a spatial region in which independent continuant b is exactly located (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [041-002])
every region r is occupies_spatial_region r at all times. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [042-002])
if b occupies_spatial_region r at t & b continuant_part_of b at t, then there is some r which is continuant_part_of r at t such that b occupies_spatial_region r at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [043-001])
(forall (r t) (if (Region r) (occupiesSpatialRegionAt r r t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [042-002]
(forall (x r t) (if (occupiesSpatialRegionAt x r t) (and (SpatialRegion r) (IndependentContinuant x)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [041-002]
(forall (x y r_1 t) (if (and (occupiesSpatialRegionAt x r_1 t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)) (exists (r_2) (and (continuantPartOfAt r_2 r_1 t) (occupiesSpatialRegionAt y r_2 t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [043-001]
g-depends-on_st
genericallyDependsOn
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'generically depends on at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'generically depends on@en'(x,y,t)
BFO2 Reference: generically dependent continuant
BFO2 Reference: independent continuant
b g-depends on c at t1 means: b exists at t1 and c exists at t1 & for some type B it holds that (c instantiates B at t1) & necessarily, for all t (if b exists at t then some instance_of B exists at t) & not (b s-depends_on c at t1). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [072-002])
if b g-depends_on c at some time t, then b g-depends_on something at all times at which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [073-001])
(forall (x y) (if (exists (t) (genericallyDependsOnAt x y t)) (forall (t_1) (if (existsAt x t_1) (exists (z) (genericallyDependsOnAt x z t_1)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [073-001]
generically depends on at some time
b g-depends on c at t1 means: b exists at t1 and c exists at t1 & for some type B it holds that (c instantiates B at t1) & necessarily, for all t (if b exists at t then some instance_of B exists at t) & not (b s-depends_on c at t1). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [072-002])
if b g-depends_on c at some time t, then b g-depends_on something at all times at which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [073-001])
(forall (x y) (if (exists (t) (genericallyDependsOnAt x y t)) (forall (t_1) (if (existsAt x t_1) (exists (z) (genericallyDependsOnAt x z t_1)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [073-001]
has-f_st
hasFunctionAt
a has_function b at t =Def. b function_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [070-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has function at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'has function@en'(x,y,t)
(iff (hasFunctionAt a b t) (functionOf b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [070-001]
has function at some time
a has_function b at t =Def. b function_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [070-001])
(iff (hasFunctionAt a b t) (functionOf b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [070-001]
has-q_st
has quality at some time
has-r_st
hasRoleAt
a has_role b at t =Def. b role_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [068-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has role at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'has role@en'(x,y,t)
(iff (hasRoleAt a b t) (roleOfAt b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [068-001]
has role at some time
a has_role b at t =Def. b role_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [068-001])
(iff (hasRoleAt a b t) (roleOfAt b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [068-001]
has-g-dep_st
[copied from inverse property 'generically depends on at some time'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'generically depends on at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'generically depends on@en'(x,y,t)
[copied from inverse property 'generically depends on at some time'] BFO2 Reference: generically dependent continuant
[copied from inverse property 'generically depends on at some time'] BFO2 Reference: independent continuant
[copied from inverse property 'generically depends on at some time'] b g-depends on c at t1 means: b exists at t1 and c exists at t1 & for some type B it holds that (c instantiates B at t1) & necessarily, for all t (if b exists at t then some instance_of B exists at t) & not (b s-depends_on c at t1). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [072-002])
has generic dependent at some time
d-of_at
dispositionOfAt
a disposition_of b at t =Def. a is a disposition and a inheres_in b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [066-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'disposition of at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'disposition of@en(x,y,t)'.
(iff (dispositionOf a b t) (and (Disposition a) (inheresInAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [066-001]
disposition of at all times
a disposition_of b at t =Def. a is a disposition and a inheres_in b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [066-001])
(iff (dispositionOf a b t) (and (Disposition a) (inheresInAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [066-001]
exists-at
existsAt
BFO2 Reference: entity
BFO2 Reference: temporal region
b exists_at t means: b is an entity which exists at some temporal region t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [118-002])
exists at
b exists_at t means: b is an entity which exists at some temporal region t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [118-002])
c-has-part_at
hasContinuantPartAt
[copied from inverse property 'part of continuant at all times that whole exists'] forall(t) exists_at(y,t) -> exists_at(x,t) and 'part of continuant'(x,y,t)
b has_continuant_part c at t = Def. c continuant_part_of b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [006-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has continuant part at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'has continuant part@en(x,y,t)'.
[copied from inverse property 'part of continuant at all times that whole exists'] This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. Unlike the rest of the temporalized relations which temporally quantify over existence of the subject of the relation, this relation temporally quantifies over the existence of the object of the relation. The relation is provided tentatively, to assess whether the GO needs such a relation. It is inverse of 'has continuant part at all times'
(iff (hasContinuantPartAt a b t) (continuantPartOfAt b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [006-001]
has continuant part at all times
b has_continuant_part c at t = Def. c continuant_part_of b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [006-001])
(iff (hasContinuantPartAt a b t) (continuantPartOfAt b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [006-001]
c-has-ppart_at
hasProperContinuantPartAt
b has_proper_continuant_part c at t = Def. c proper_continuant_part_of b at t. [XXX-001
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has proper continuant part at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'has proper continuant part@en(x,y,t)'.
has proper continuant part at all times
has-d_st
hasDispositionAt
a has_disposition b at t =Def. b disposition_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [069-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has disposition at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'has disposition@en'(x,y,t)
(iff (hasDispositionAt a b t) (dispositionOf b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [069-001]
has disposition at some time
a has_disposition b at t =Def. b disposition_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [069-001])
(iff (hasDispositionAt a b t) (dispositionOf b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [069-001]
has-material-basis_at
hasMaterialBasisAt
the material basis of John’s disposition to cough is the viral infection in John’s upper respiratory tract
the material basis of the disposition to wear unevenly of John’s tires is the worn suspension of his car.
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has material basis at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'has material basis@en(x,y,t)'.
b has_material_basis c at t means: b is a disposition & c is a material entity & there is some d bearer_of b at t& c continuant_part_of d at t& d has_disposition b at t because c continuant_part_of d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [071-002])
(forall (x y t) (if (hasMaterialBasisAt x y t) (and (Disposition x) (MaterialEntity y) (exists (z) (and (bearerOfAt z x t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t) (exists (w) (and (Disposition w) (if (hasDisposition z w) (continuantPartOfAt y z t))))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [071-002]
has material basis at all times
b has_material_basis c at t means: b is a disposition & c is a material entity & there is some d bearer_of b at t& c continuant_part_of d at t& d has_disposition b at t because c continuant_part_of d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [071-002])
(forall (x y t) (if (hasMaterialBasisAt x y t) (and (Disposition x) (MaterialEntity y) (exists (z) (and (bearerOfAt z x t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t) (exists (w) (and (Disposition w) (if (hasDisposition z w) (continuantPartOfAt y z t))))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [071-002]
has-member-part_st
[copied from inverse property 'member part of at some time'] each piece in a chess set is a member part of the chess set; each Beatle in the collection called The Beatles is a member part of The Beatles.
[copied from inverse property 'member part of at some time'] each tree in a forest is a member_part of the forest
[copied from inverse property 'member part of at some time'] b member_part_of c at t =Def. b is an object & there is at t a mutually exhaustive and pairwise disjoint partition of c into objects x1, …, xn (for some n > 1) with b = xi for some 1 ? i ? n. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [026-004])
[copied from inverse property 'member part of at some time'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'member part of at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'member part of@en'(x,y,t)
[copied from inverse property 'member part of at some time'] BFO2 Reference: object
[copied from inverse property 'member part of at some time'] BFO2 Reference: object aggregate
has member part at some time
o-has-part
hasOccurrentPart
[copied from inverse property 'part of occurrent'] Mary’s 5th birthday occurrent_part_of Mary’s life
[copied from inverse property 'part of occurrent'] The process of a footballer’s heart beating once is an occurrent part but not a temporal_part of a game of football.
[copied from inverse property 'part of occurrent'] the first set of the tennis match occurrent_part_of the tennis match.
b has_occurrent_part c = Def. c occurrent_part_of b. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [007-001])
[copied from inverse property 'part of occurrent'] BFO 2 Reference: a (continuant or occurrent) part of itself. We appreciate that this is counterintuitive for some users, since it implies for example that President Obama is a part of himself. However it brings benefits in simplifying the logical formalism, and it captures an important feature of identity, namely that it is the limit case of mereological inclusion.
[copied from inverse property 'part of occurrent'] BFO2 Reference: occurrent
[copied from inverse property 'part of occurrent'] b occurrent_part_of c =Def. b is a part of c & b and c are occurrents. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [003-002])
(iff (hasOccurrentPart a b) (occurrentPartOf b a)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [007-001]
has occurrent part
b has_occurrent_part c = Def. c occurrent_part_of b. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [007-001])
(iff (hasOccurrentPart a b) (occurrentPartOf b a)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [007-001]
o-has-ppart
hasProperOccurrentPart
[copied from inverse property 'proper part of occurrent'] b proper_occurrent_part_of c =Def. b occurrent_part_of c & b and c are not identical. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [005-001])
b has_proper_occurrent_part c = Def. c proper_occurrent_part_of b. [XXX-001
has proper occurrent part
has-profile
has profile
has-t-part
[copied from inverse property 'temporal part of'] the 4th year of your life is a temporal part of your life\. The first quarter of a game of football is a temporal part of the whole game\. The process of your heart beating from 4pm to 5pm today is a temporal part of the entire process of your heart beating.\ The 4th year of your life is a temporal part of your life
[copied from inverse property 'temporal part of'] the process boundary which separates the 3rd and 4th years of your life.
[copied from inverse property 'temporal part of'] your heart beating from 4pm to 5pm today is a temporal part of the process of your heart beating
[copied from inverse property 'temporal part of'] b proper_temporal_part_of c =Def. b temporal_part_of c & not (b = c). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [116-001])
[copied from inverse property 'temporal part of'] b temporal_part_of c =Def.b occurrent_part_of c & & for some temporal region t, b occupies_temporal_region t & for all occurrents d, t (if d occupies_temporal_region t & t? occurrent_part_of t then (d occurrent_part_of a iff d occurrent_part_of b)). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [078-003])
has temporal part
r-location-of_st
[copied from inverse property 'occupies spatial region at some time'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'occupies spatial region at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'occupies spatial region@en'(x,y,t)
[copied from inverse property 'occupies spatial region at some time'] BFO2 Reference: independent continuant
[copied from inverse property 'occupies spatial region at some time'] BFO2 Reference: spatial region
[copied from inverse property 'occupies spatial region at some time'] b occupies_spatial_region r at t means that r is a spatial region in which independent continuant b is exactly located (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [041-002])
has spatial occupant at some time
has-location_st
[copied from inverse property 'located in at some time'] Mary located_in Salzburg
[copied from inverse property 'located in at some time'] the Empire State Building located_in New York.
[copied from inverse property 'located in at some time'] this portion of cocaine located_in this portion of blood
[copied from inverse property 'located in at some time'] this stem cell located_in this portion of bone marrow
[copied from inverse property 'located in at some time'] your arm located_in your body
[copied from inverse property 'located in at some time'] b located_in c at t = Def. b and c are independent continuants, and the region at which b is located at t is a (proper or improper) continuant_part_of the region at which c is located at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [045-001])
[copied from inverse property 'located in at some time'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'located in at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'located in@en'(x,y,t)
[copied from inverse property 'located in at some time'] BFO2 Reference: independent continuant
has location at some time
has-s-dep_st
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] A pain s-depends_on the organism that is experiencing the pain
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] a gait s-depends_on the walking object. (All at some specific time.)
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] a shape s-depends_on the shaped object
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] one-sided s-dependence of a dependent continuant on an independent continuant: an instance of headache s-depends_on some head
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] one-sided s-dependence of a dependent continuant on an independent continuant: an instance of temperature s-depends_on some organism
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] one-sided s-dependence of a process on something: a process of cell death s-depends_on a cell
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] one-sided s-dependence of a process on something: an instance of seeing (a relational process) s-depends_on some organism and on some seen entity, which may be an occurrent or a continuant
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on another: a process of answering a question is dependent on a prior process of asking a question
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on another: a process of obeying a command is dependent on a prior process of issuing a command
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on multiple independent continuants: a relational process of hitting a ball with a cricket bat
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on multiple independent continuants: a relational process of paying cash to a merchant in exchange for a bag of figs
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] reciprocal s-dependence between occurrents: a process of buying and the associated process of selling
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] reciprocal s-dependence between occurrents: a process of increasing the volume of a portion of gas while temperature remains constant and the associated process of decreasing the pressure exerted by the gas
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] reciprocal s-dependence between occurrents: in a game of chess the process of playing with the white pieces is mutually dependent on the process of playing with the black pieces
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] the one-sided dependence of an occurrent on an independent continuant: football match on the players, the ground, the ball
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] the one-sided dependence of an occurrent on an independent continuant: handwave on a hand
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] the three-sided reciprocal s-dependence of the hue, saturation and brightness of a color [45
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] the three-sided reciprocal s-dependence of the pitch, timbre and volume of a tone [45
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] the two-sided reciprocal s-dependence of the roles of husband and wife [20
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'specifically depends on at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'specifically depends on@en'(x,y,t)
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] BFO 2 Reference: An entity – for example an act of communication or a game of football – can s-depends_on more than one entity. Complex phenomena for example in the psychological and social realms (such as inferring, commanding and requesting) or in the realm of multi-organismal biological processes (such as infection and resistance), will involve multiple families of dependence relations, involving both continuants and occurrents [1, 4, 28
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] BFO 2 Reference: S-dependence is just one type of dependence among many; it is what, in the literature, is referred to as ‘existential dependence’ [87, 46, 65, 20
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] BFO 2 Reference: the relation of s-depends_on does not in every case require simultaneous existence of its relata. Note the difference between such cases and the cases of continuant universals defined historically: the act of answering depends existentially on the prior act of questioning; the human being who was baptized or who answered a question does not himself depend existentially on the prior act of baptism or answering. He would still exist even if these acts had never taken place.
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] BFO2 Reference: specifically dependent continuant\; process; process boundary
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] To say that b s-depends_on a at t is to say that b and c do not share common parts & b is of its nature such that it cannot exist unless c exists & b is not a boundary of c and b is not a site of which c is the host [64
has specific dependent at some time
occupied-by
[copied from inverse property 'occupies spatiotemporal region'] BFO 2 Reference: The occupies_spatiotemporal_region and occupies_temporal_region relations are the counterpart, on the occurrent side, of the relation occupies_spatial_region.
[copied from inverse property 'occupies spatiotemporal region'] p occupies_spatiotemporal_region s. This is a primitive relation between an occurrent p and the spatiotemporal region s which is its spatiotemporal extent. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [082-003])
has spatiotemporal occupant
material-basis-of_st
material basis of at some time
member-part-of_st
memberPartOfAt
each piece in a chess set is a member part of the chess set; each Beatle in the collection called The Beatles is a member part of The Beatles.
each tree in a forest is a member_part of the forest
b member_part_of c at t =Def. b is an object & there is at t a mutually exhaustive and pairwise disjoint partition of c into objects x1, …, xn (for some n > 1) with b = xi for some 1 ? i ? n. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [026-004])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'member part of at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'member part of@en'(x,y,t)
BFO2 Reference: object
BFO2 Reference: object aggregate
if b member_part_of c at t then b continuant_part_of c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [104-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (memberPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt x y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [104-001]
member part of at some time
b member_part_of c at t =Def. b is an object & there is at t a mutually exhaustive and pairwise disjoint partition of c into objects x1, …, xn (for some n > 1) with b = xi for some 1 ? i ? n. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [026-004])
if b member_part_of c at t then b continuant_part_of c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [104-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (memberPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt x y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [104-001]
occupies
occupiesSpatiotemporalRegion
BFO 2 Reference: The occupies_spatiotemporal_region and occupies_temporal_region relations are the counterpart, on the occurrent side, of the relation occupies_spatial_region.
p occupies_spatiotemporal_region s. This is a primitive relation between an occurrent p and the spatiotemporal region s which is its spatiotemporal extent. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [082-003])
occupies spatiotemporal region
p occupies_spatiotemporal_region s. This is a primitive relation between an occurrent p and the spatiotemporal region s which is its spatiotemporal extent. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [082-003])
o-part-of
occurrentPartOf
Mary’s 5th birthday occurrent_part_of Mary’s life
The process of a footballer’s heart beating once is an occurrent part but not a temporal_part of a game of football.
the first set of the tennis match occurrent_part_of the tennis match.
[copied from inverse property 'has occurrent part'] b has_occurrent_part c = Def. c occurrent_part_of b. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [007-001])
BFO 2 Reference: a (continuant or occurrent) part of itself. We appreciate that this is counterintuitive for some users, since it implies for example that President Obama is a part of himself. However it brings benefits in simplifying the logical formalism, and it captures an important feature of identity, namely that it is the limit case of mereological inclusion.
BFO2 Reference: occurrent
b occurrent_part_of c =Def. b is a part of c & b and c are occurrents. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [003-002])
occurrent_part_of is antisymmetric. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [123-001])
occurrent_part_of is reflexive (every occurrent entity is an occurrent_part_of itself). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [113-002])
occurrent_part_of is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [112-001])
occurrent_part_of satisfies unique product. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [125-001])
occurrent_part_of satisfies weak supplementation. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [124-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (occurrentPartOf x y t) (not (= x y))) (exists (z) (and (occurrentPartOf z y t) (not (exists (w) (and (occurrentPartOf w x t) (occurrentPartOf w z t)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [124-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (occurrentPartOf x y t) (occurrentPartOf y x t)) (= x y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [123-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (exists (v) (and (occurrentPartOf v x t) (occurrentPartOf v y t))) (exists (z) (forall (u w) (iff (iff (occurrentPartOf w u t) (and (occurrentPartOf w x t) (occurrentPartOf w y t))) (= z u)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [125-001]
(forall (x y z) (if (and (occurrentPartOf x y) (occurrentPartOf y z)) (occurrentPartOf x z))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [112-001]
(forall (x) (if (Occurrent x) (occurrentPartOf x x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [113-002]
part of occurrent
b occurrent_part_of c =Def. b is a part of c & b and c are occurrents. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [003-002])
occurrent_part_of is antisymmetric. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [123-001])
occurrent_part_of is reflexive (every occurrent entity is an occurrent_part_of itself). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [113-002])
occurrent_part_of is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [112-001])
occurrent_part_of satisfies unique product. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [125-001])
occurrent_part_of satisfies weak supplementation. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [124-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (occurrentPartOf x y t) (not (= x y))) (exists (z) (and (occurrentPartOf z y t) (not (exists (w) (and (occurrentPartOf w x t) (occurrentPartOf w z t)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [124-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (occurrentPartOf x y t) (occurrentPartOf y x t)) (= x y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [123-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (exists (v) (and (occurrentPartOf v x t) (occurrentPartOf v y t))) (exists (z) (forall (u w) (iff (iff (occurrentPartOf w u t) (and (occurrentPartOf w x t) (occurrentPartOf w y t))) (= z u)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [125-001]
(forall (x y z) (if (and (occurrentPartOf x y) (occurrentPartOf y z)) (occurrentPartOf x z))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [112-001]
(forall (x) (if (Occurrent x) (occurrentPartOf x x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [113-002]
profile-of
processProfileOf
process profile of
t-ppart-of
properTemporalPartOf
proper temporal part of
c-ppart-of_at
properContinuantPartOfAt
b proper_continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b continuant_part_of c at t & b and c are not identical. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [004-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'proper part of continuant at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'proper part of continuant@en(x,y,t)'.
(iff (properContinuantPartOfAt a b t) (and (continuantPartOfAt a b t) (not (= a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [004-001]
proper part of continuant at all times
b proper_continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b continuant_part_of c at t & b and c are not identical. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [004-001])
(iff (properContinuantPartOfAt a b t) (and (continuantPartOfAt a b t) (not (= a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [004-001]
o-ppart-of
properOccurrentPartOf
[copied from inverse property 'has proper occurrent part'] b has_proper_occurrent_part c = Def. c proper_occurrent_part_of b. [XXX-001
b proper_occurrent_part_of c =Def. b occurrent_part_of c & b and c are not identical. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [005-001])
(iff (properOccurrentPartOf a b) (and (occurrentPartOf a b) (not (= a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [005-001]
proper part of occurrent
b proper_occurrent_part_of c =Def. b occurrent_part_of c & b and c are not identical. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [005-001])
(iff (properOccurrentPartOf a b) (and (occurrentPartOf a b) (not (= a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [005-001]
t-part-of
temporalPartOf
the 4th year of your life is a temporal part of your life\. The first quarter of a game of football is a temporal part of the whole game\. The process of your heart beating from 4pm to 5pm today is a temporal part of the entire process of your heart beating.\ The 4th year of your life is a temporal part of your life
the process boundary which separates the 3rd and 4th years of your life.
your heart beating from 4pm to 5pm today is a temporal part of the process of your heart beating
b proper_temporal_part_of c =Def. b temporal_part_of c & not (b = c). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [116-001])
b temporal_part_of c =Def.b occurrent_part_of c & & for some temporal region t, b occupies_temporal_region t & for all occurrents d, t (if d occupies_temporal_region t & t? occurrent_part_of t then (d occurrent_part_of a iff d occurrent_part_of b)). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [078-003])
if b proper_temporal_part_of c, then there is some d which is a proper_temporal_part_of c and which shares no parts with b. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [117-002])
(forall (x y) (if (properTemporalPartOf x y) (exists (z) (and (properTemporalPartOf z y) (not (exists (w) (and (temporalPartOf w x) (temporalPartOf w z)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [117-002]
(iff (properTemporalPartOf a b) (and (temporalPartOf a b) (not (= a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [116-001]
(iff (temporalPartOf a b) (and (occurrentPartOf a b) (exists (t) (and (TemporalRegion t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion a t))) (forall (c t_1) (if (and (Occurrent c) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion c t_1) (occurrentPartOf t_1 r)) (iff (occurrentPartOf c a) (occurrentPartOf c b)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [078-003]
temporal part of
b proper_temporal_part_of c =Def. b temporal_part_of c & not (b = c). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [116-001])
b temporal_part_of c =Def.b occurrent_part_of c & & for some temporal region t, b occupies_temporal_region t & for all occurrents d, t (if d occupies_temporal_region t & t? occurrent_part_of t then (d occurrent_part_of a iff d occurrent_part_of b)). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [078-003])
if b proper_temporal_part_of c, then there is some d which is a proper_temporal_part_of c and which shares no parts with b. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [117-002])
(forall (x y) (if (properTemporalPartOf x y) (exists (z) (and (properTemporalPartOf z y) (not (exists (w) (and (temporalPartOf w x) (temporalPartOf w z)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [117-002]
(iff (properTemporalPartOf a b) (and (temporalPartOf a b) (not (= a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [116-001]
(iff (temporalPartOf a b) (and (occurrentPartOf a b) (exists (t) (and (TemporalRegion t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion a t))) (forall (c t_1) (if (and (Occurrent c) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion c t_1) (occurrentPartOf t_1 r)) (iff (occurrentPartOf c a) (occurrentPartOf c b)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [078-003]
st-projects-onto-s_st
projects onto spatial region at some time
s-projection-of-st_st
spatial projection of spatiotemporal at some time
st-projects-onto-t
projects onto temporal region
t-projection-of-st
temporal projection of spatiotemporal
spans
occupiesTemporalRegion
p occupies_temporal_region t. This is a primitive relation between an occurrent p and the temporal region t upon which the spatiotemporal region p occupies_spatiotemporal_region projects. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [132-001])
occupies temporal region
p occupies_temporal_region t. This is a primitive relation between an occurrent p and the temporal region t upon which the spatiotemporal region p occupies_spatiotemporal_region projects. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [132-001])
span-of
spanOf
[copied from inverse property 'occupies temporal region'] p occupies_temporal_region t. This is a primitive relation between an occurrent p and the temporal region t upon which the spatiotemporal region p occupies_spatiotemporal_region projects. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [132-001])
has temporal occupant
during-which-exists
[copied from inverse property 'exists at'] BFO2 Reference: entity
[copied from inverse property 'exists at'] BFO2 Reference: temporal region
[copied from inverse property 'exists at'] b exists_at t means: b is an entity which exists at some temporal region t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [118-002])
during which exists
bearer-of_at
bearerOfAt
b bearer_of c at t =Def. c s-depends_on b at t & b is an independent continuant that is not a spatial region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [053-004])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'bearer of at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'bearer of@en(x,y,t)'.
BFO2 Reference: independent continuant that is not a spatial region
BFO2 Reference: specifically dependent continuant
(iff (bearerOfAt a b t) (and (specificallyDependsOnAt b a t) (IndependentContinuant a) (not (SpatialRegion a)) (existsAt b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [053-004]
bearer of at all times
b bearer_of c at t =Def. c s-depends_on b at t & b is an independent continuant that is not a spatial region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [053-004])
(iff (bearerOfAt a b t) (and (specificallyDependsOnAt b a t) (IndependentContinuant a) (not (SpatialRegion a)) (existsAt b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [053-004]
has-q_at
has quality at all times
has-f_at
hasFunctionAt
a has_function b at t =Def. b function_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [070-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has function at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'has function@en(x,y,t)'.
(iff (hasFunctionAt a b t) (functionOf b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [070-001]
has function at all times
a has_function b at t =Def. b function_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [070-001])
(iff (hasFunctionAt a b t) (functionOf b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [070-001]
has-r_at
hasRoleAt
a has_role b at t =Def. b role_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [068-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has role at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'has role@en(x,y,t)'.
(iff (hasRoleAt a b t) (roleOfAt b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [068-001]
has role at all times
a has_role b at t =Def. b role_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [068-001])
(iff (hasRoleAt a b t) (roleOfAt b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [068-001]
has-d_at
hasDispositionAt
a has_disposition b at t =Def. b disposition_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [069-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has disposition at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'has disposition@en(x,y,t)'.
(iff (hasDispositionAt a b t) (dispositionOf b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [069-001]
has disposition at all times
a has_disposition b at t =Def. b disposition_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [069-001])
(iff (hasDispositionAt a b t) (dispositionOf b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [069-001]
material-basis-of_at
material basis of at all times
concretizes_at
concretizesAt
You may concretize a piece of software by installing it in your computer
You may concretize a recipe that you find in a cookbook by turning it into a plan which exists as a realizable dependent continuant in your head.
you may concretize a poem as a pattern of memory traces in your head
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'concretizes at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'concretizes@en(x,y,t)'.
b concretizes c at t means: b is a specifically dependent continuant & c is a generically dependent continuant & for some independent continuant that is not a spatial region d, b s-depends_on d at t & c g-depends on d at t & if c migrates from bearer d to another bearer e than a copy of b will be created in e. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [075-002])
if b g-depends on c at some time t, then there is some d, such that d concretizes b at t and d s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [076-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (concretizesAt x y t) (and (SpecificallyDependentContinuant x) (GenericallyDependentContinuant y) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t) (genericallyDependsOnAt y z t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [075-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (genericallyDependsOnAt x y t) (exists (z) (and (concretizesAt z x t) (specificallyDependsOnAt z y t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [076-001]
concretizes at all times
b concretizes c at t means: b is a specifically dependent continuant & c is a generically dependent continuant & for some independent continuant that is not a spatial region d, b s-depends_on d at t & c g-depends on d at t & if c migrates from bearer d to another bearer e than a copy of b will be created in e. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [075-002])
if b g-depends on c at some time t, then there is some d, such that d concretizes b at t and d s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [076-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (concretizesAt x y t) (and (SpecificallyDependentContinuant x) (GenericallyDependentContinuant y) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t) (genericallyDependsOnAt y z t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [075-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (genericallyDependsOnAt x y t) (exists (z) (and (concretizesAt z x t) (specificallyDependsOnAt z y t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [076-001]
concretized-by_at
concretized by at all times
participates-in_at
participatesInAt
participates in at all times
has-participant_at
hasParticipantAt
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has participant at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'has participant@en(x,y,t)'.
BFO 2 Reference: Spatial regions do not participate in processes.
BFO2 Reference: independent continuant that is not a spatial region, specifically dependent continuant, generically dependent continuant
BFO2 Reference: process
has_participant is an instance-level relation between a process, a continuant, and a temporal region at which the continuant participates in some way in the process. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [086-003])
if b has_participant c at t & c is a generically dependent continuant, then there is some independent continuant that is not a spatial region d, and which is such that c g-depends on d at t & b s-depends_on d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [091-003])
if b has_participant c at t & c is a specifically dependent continuant, then there is some independent continuant that is not a spatial region d, c s-depends_on d at t & b s-depends_on d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [090-003])
if b has_participant c at t then b is an occurrent. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [087-001])
if b has_participant c at t then c exists at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [089-001])
if b has_participant c at t then c is a continuant. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [088-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (hasParticipantAt x y t) (GenericallyDependentContinuant y)) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (not (SpatialRegion z)) (genericallyDependsOn y z t) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [091-003]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (hasParticipantAt x y t) (SpecificallyDependentContinuant y)) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (not (SpatialRegion z)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t) (specificallyDependsOnAt y z t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [090-003]
(forall (x y t) (if (hasParticipantAt x y t) (Continuant y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [088-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (hasParticipantAt x y t) (Occurrent x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [087-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (hasParticipantAt x y t) (existsAt y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [089-001]
has participant at all times
has_participant is an instance-level relation between a process, a continuant, and a temporal region at which the continuant participates in some way in the process. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [086-003])
if b has_participant c at t & c is a generically dependent continuant, then there is some independent continuant that is not a spatial region d, and which is such that c g-depends on d at t & b s-depends_on d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [091-003])
if b has_participant c at t & c is a specifically dependent continuant, then there is some independent continuant that is not a spatial region d, c s-depends_on d at t & b s-depends_on d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [090-003])
if b has_participant c at t then b is an occurrent. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [087-001])
if b has_participant c at t then c exists at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [089-001])
if b has_participant c at t then c is a continuant. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [088-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (hasParticipantAt x y t) (GenericallyDependentContinuant y)) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (not (SpatialRegion z)) (genericallyDependsOn y z t) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [091-003]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (hasParticipantAt x y t) (SpecificallyDependentContinuant y)) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (not (SpatialRegion z)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t) (specificallyDependsOnAt y z t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [090-003]
(forall (x y t) (if (hasParticipantAt x y t) (Continuant y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [088-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (hasParticipantAt x y t) (Occurrent x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [087-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (hasParticipantAt x y t) (existsAt y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [089-001]
has-s-dep_at
has specific dependent at all times
s-depends-on_st
specificallyDependsOn
A pain s-depends_on the organism that is experiencing the pain
a gait s-depends_on the walking object. (All at some specific time.)
a shape s-depends_on the shaped object
one-sided s-dependence of a dependent continuant on an independent continuant: an instance of headache s-depends_on some head
one-sided s-dependence of a dependent continuant on an independent continuant: an instance of temperature s-depends_on some organism
one-sided s-dependence of a process on something: a process of cell death s-depends_on a cell
one-sided s-dependence of a process on something: an instance of seeing (a relational process) s-depends_on some organism and on some seen entity, which may be an occurrent or a continuant
one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on another: a process of answering a question is dependent on a prior process of asking a question
one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on another: a process of obeying a command is dependent on a prior process of issuing a command
one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on multiple independent continuants: a relational process of hitting a ball with a cricket bat
one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on multiple independent continuants: a relational process of paying cash to a merchant in exchange for a bag of figs
reciprocal s-dependence between occurrents: a process of buying and the associated process of selling
reciprocal s-dependence between occurrents: a process of increasing the volume of a portion of gas while temperature remains constant and the associated process of decreasing the pressure exerted by the gas
reciprocal s-dependence between occurrents: in a game of chess the process of playing with the white pieces is mutually dependent on the process of playing with the black pieces
the one-sided dependence of an occurrent on an independent continuant: football match on the players, the ground, the ball
the one-sided dependence of an occurrent on an independent continuant: handwave on a hand
the three-sided reciprocal s-dependence of the hue, saturation and brightness of a color [45
the three-sided reciprocal s-dependence of the pitch, timbre and volume of a tone [45
the two-sided reciprocal s-dependence of the roles of husband and wife [20
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'specifically depends on at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'specifically depends on@en'(x,y,t)
BFO 2 Reference: An entity – for example an act of communication or a game of football – can s-depends_on more than one entity. Complex phenomena for example in the psychological and social realms (such as inferring, commanding and requesting) or in the realm of multi-organismal biological processes (such as infection and resistance), will involve multiple families of dependence relations, involving both continuants and occurrents [1, 4, 28
BFO 2 Reference: S-dependence is just one type of dependence among many; it is what, in the literature, is referred to as ‘existential dependence’ [87, 46, 65, 20
BFO 2 Reference: the relation of s-depends_on does not in every case require simultaneous existence of its relata. Note the difference between such cases and the cases of continuant universals defined historically: the act of answering depends existentially on the prior act of questioning; the human being who was baptized or who answered a question does not himself depend existentially on the prior act of baptism or answering. He would still exist even if these acts had never taken place.
BFO2 Reference: specifically dependent continuant\; process; process boundary
To say that b s-depends_on a at t is to say that b and c do not share common parts & b is of its nature such that it cannot exist unless c exists & b is not a boundary of c and b is not a site of which c is the host [64
If b is s-depends_on something at some time, then b is not a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [052-001])
If b s-depends_on something at t, then there is some c, which is an independent continuant and not a spatial region, such that b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [136-001])
If occurrent b s-depends_on some independent continuant c at t, then b s-depends_on c at every time at which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [015-002])
an entity does not s-depend_on any of its (continuant or occurrent) parts or on anything it is part of. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [013-002])
if b s-depends_on c at t & c s-depends_on d at t then b s-depends_on d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [054-002])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (Entity x) (or (continuantPartOfAt y x t) (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (occurrentPartOf x y) (occurrentPartOf y x))) (not (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [013-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (Occurrent x) (IndependentContinuant y) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)) (forall (t_1) (if (existsAt x t_1) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t_1))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [015-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (not (SpatialRegion z)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [136-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t) (specificallyDependsOnAt y z t)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [054-002]
(forall (x) (if (exists (y t) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)) (not (MaterialEntity x)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [052-001]
specifically depends on at some time
If b is s-depends_on something at some time, then b is not a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [052-001])
If b s-depends_on something at t, then there is some c, which is an independent continuant and not a spatial region, such that b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [136-001])
If occurrent b s-depends_on some independent continuant c at t, then b s-depends_on c at every time at which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [015-002])
an entity does not s-depend_on any of its (continuant or occurrent) parts or on anything it is part of. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [013-002])
if b s-depends_on c at t & c s-depends_on d at t then b s-depends_on d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [054-002])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (Entity x) (or (continuantPartOfAt y x t) (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (occurrentPartOf x y) (occurrentPartOf y x))) (not (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [013-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (Occurrent x) (IndependentContinuant y) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)) (forall (t_1) (if (existsAt x t_1) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t_1))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [015-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (not (SpatialRegion z)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [136-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t) (specificallyDependsOnAt y z t)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [054-002]
(forall (x) (if (exists (y t) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)) (not (MaterialEntity x)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [052-001]
has-location_at
has location at all times
located-in_st
locatedInAt
Mary located_in Salzburg
the Empire State Building located_in New York.
this portion of cocaine located_in this portion of blood
this stem cell located_in this portion of bone marrow
your arm located_in your body
b located_in c at t = Def. b and c are independent continuants, and the region at which b is located at t is a (proper or improper) continuant_part_of the region at which c is located at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [045-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'located in at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'located in@en'(x,y,t)
BFO2 Reference: independent continuant
Located_in is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [046-001])
for all independent continuants b, c, and d: if b continuant_part_of c at t & c located_in d at t, then b located_in d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [048-001])
for all independent continuants b, c, and d: if b located_in c at t & c continuant_part_of d at t, then b located_in d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [049-001])
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (IndependentContinuant y) (IndependentContinuant z) (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (locatedInAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [048-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (IndependentContinuant y) (IndependentContinuant z) (locatedInAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [049-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (locatedInAt x y t) (locatedInAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [046-001]
(iff (locatedInAt a b t) (and (IndependentContinuant a) (IndependentContinuant b) (exists (r_1 r_2) (and (occupiesSpatialRegionAt a r_1 t) (occupiesSpatialRegionAt b r_2 t) (continuantPartOfAt r_1 r_2 t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [045-001]
located in at some time
b located_in c at t = Def. b and c are independent continuants, and the region at which b is located at t is a (proper or improper) continuant_part_of the region at which c is located at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [045-001])
Located_in is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [046-001])
for all independent continuants b, c, and d: if b continuant_part_of c at t & c located_in d at t, then b located_in d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [048-001])
for all independent continuants b, c, and d: if b located_in c at t & c continuant_part_of d at t, then b located_in d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [049-001])
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (IndependentContinuant y) (IndependentContinuant z) (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (locatedInAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [048-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (IndependentContinuant y) (IndependentContinuant z) (locatedInAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [049-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (locatedInAt x y t) (locatedInAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [046-001]
(iff (locatedInAt a b t) (and (IndependentContinuant a) (IndependentContinuant b) (exists (r_1 r_2) (and (occupiesSpatialRegionAt a r_1 t) (occupiesSpatialRegionAt b r_2 t) (continuantPartOfAt r_1 r_2 t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [045-001]
has-member-part_at
has member part at all times
member-part-of_at
memberPartOfAt
each piece in a chess set is a member part of the chess set; each Beatle in the collection called The Beatles is a member part of The Beatles.
each tree in a forest is a member_part of the forest
b member_part_of c at t =Def. b is an object & there is at t a mutually exhaustive and pairwise disjoint partition of c into objects x1, …, xn (for some n > 1) with b = xi for some 1 ? i ? n. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [026-004])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'member part of at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'member part of@en(x,y,t)'.
BFO2 Reference: object
BFO2 Reference: object aggregate
if b member_part_of c at t then b continuant_part_of c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [104-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (memberPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt x y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [104-001]
member part of at all times
b member_part_of c at t =Def. b is an object & there is at t a mutually exhaustive and pairwise disjoint partition of c into objects x1, …, xn (for some n > 1) with b = xi for some 1 ? i ? n. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [026-004])
if b member_part_of c at t then b continuant_part_of c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [104-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (memberPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt x y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [104-001]
c-has-ppart_st
hasProperContinuantPartAt
[copied from inverse property 'proper part of continuant at some time'] b proper_continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b continuant_part_of c at t & b and c are not identical. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [004-001])
b has_proper_continuant_part c at t = Def. c proper_continuant_part_of b at t. [XXX-001
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has proper continuant part at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'has proper continuant part@en'(x,y,t)
[copied from inverse property 'proper part of continuant at some time'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'proper part of continuant at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'proper part of continuant@en'(x,y,t)
has proper continuant part at some time
c-ppart-of_st
properContinuantPartOfAt
[copied from inverse property 'has proper continuant part at some time'] b has_proper_continuant_part c at t = Def. c proper_continuant_part_of b at t. [XXX-001
b proper_continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b continuant_part_of c at t & b and c are not identical. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [004-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'proper part of continuant at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'proper part of continuant@en'(x,y,t)
[copied from inverse property 'has proper continuant part at some time'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has proper continuant part at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'has proper continuant part@en'(x,y,t)
(iff (properContinuantPartOfAt a b t) (and (continuantPartOfAt a b t) (not (= a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [004-001]
proper part of continuant at some time
b proper_continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b continuant_part_of c at t & b and c are not identical. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [004-001])
(iff (properContinuantPartOfAt a b t) (and (continuantPartOfAt a b t) (not (= a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [004-001]
c-part-of_st
continuantPartOfAt
Mary’s arm continuant_part_of Mary in the time of her life prior to her operation
the Northern hemisphere of the planet Earth is a part of the planet Earth at all times at which the planet Earth exists.
[copied from inverse property 'has continuant part at some time'] b has_continuant_part c at t = Def. c continuant_part_of b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [006-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'part of continuant at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'part of continuant@en'(x,y,t)
BFO 2 Reference: Immaterial entities are in some cases continuant parts of their material hosts. Thus the hold of a ship, for example, is a part of the ship; it may itself have parts, which may have names (used for example by ship stow planners, customs inspectors, and the like). Immaterial entities under both 1. and 2. can be of zero, one, two or three dimensions. We define:a(immaterial entity)[Definition: a is an immaterial entity = Def. a is an independent continuant that has no material entities as parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [028-001])
BFO 2 Reference: a (continuant or occurrent) part of itself. We appreciate that this is counterintuitive for some users, since it implies for example that President Obama is a part of himself. However it brings benefits in simplifying the logical formalism, and it captures an important feature of identity, namely that it is the limit case of mereological inclusion.
BFO2 Reference: continuant
BFO2 Reference: continuantThe range for ‘t’ (as in all cases throughout this document unless otherwise specified) is: temporal region.
[copied from inverse property 'has continuant part at some time'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has continuant part at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'has continuant part@en'(x,y,t)
b continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b is a part of c at t & t is a time & b and c are continuants. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [002-001])
continuant_part_of is antisymmetric. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [120-001])
continuant_part_of is reflexive (every continuant entity is a continuant_part_of itself). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [111-002])
continuant_part_of is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [110-001])
continuant_part_of satisfies unique product. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [122-001])
continuant_part_of satisfies weak supplementation. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [121-001])
if b continuant_part_of c at t and b is an independent continuant, then b is located_in c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [047-002])
(forall (x t) (if (Continuant x) (continuantPartOfAt x x t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [111-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (IndependentContinuant x)) (locatedInAt x y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [047-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)) (= x y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [120-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (not (= x y))) (exists (z) (and (continuantPartOfAt z y t) (not (exists (w) (and (continuantPartOfAt w x t) (continuantPartOfAt w z t)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [121-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (exists (v) (and (continuantPartOfAt v x t) (continuantPartOfAt v y t))) (exists (z) (forall (u w) (iff (iff (continuantPartOfAt w u t) (and (continuantPartOfAt w x t) (continuantPartOfAt w y t))) (= z u)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [122-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t)) (continuantPartOfAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [110-001]
(iff (ImmaterialEntity a) (and (IndependentContinuant a) (not (exists (b t) (and (MaterialEntity b) (continuantPartOfAt b a t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [028-001]
part of continuant at some time
BFO 2 Reference: Immaterial entities are in some cases continuant parts of their material hosts. Thus the hold of a ship, for example, is a part of the ship; it may itself have parts, which may have names (used for example by ship stow planners, customs inspectors, and the like). Immaterial entities under both 1. and 2. can be of zero, one, two or three dimensions. We define:a(immaterial entity)[Definition: a is an immaterial entity = Def. a is an independent continuant that has no material entities as parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [028-001])
b continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b is a part of c at t & t is a time & b and c are continuants. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [002-001])
continuant_part_of is antisymmetric. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [120-001])
continuant_part_of is reflexive (every continuant entity is a continuant_part_of itself). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [111-002])
continuant_part_of is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [110-001])
continuant_part_of satisfies unique product. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [122-001])
continuant_part_of satisfies weak supplementation. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [121-001])
if b continuant_part_of c at t and b is an independent continuant, then b is located_in c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [047-002])
(forall (x t) (if (Continuant x) (continuantPartOfAt x x t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [111-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (IndependentContinuant x)) (locatedInAt x y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [047-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)) (= x y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [120-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (not (= x y))) (exists (z) (and (continuantPartOfAt z y t) (not (exists (w) (and (continuantPartOfAt w x t) (continuantPartOfAt w z t)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [121-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (exists (v) (and (continuantPartOfAt v x t) (continuantPartOfAt v y t))) (exists (z) (forall (u w) (iff (iff (continuantPartOfAt w u t) (and (continuantPartOfAt w x t) (continuantPartOfAt w y t))) (= z u)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [122-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t)) (continuantPartOfAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [110-001]
(iff (ImmaterialEntity a) (and (IndependentContinuant a) (not (exists (b t) (and (MaterialEntity b) (continuantPartOfAt b a t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [028-001]
c-part-of_at
continuantPartOfAt
Mary’s arm continuant_part_of Mary in the time of her life prior to her operation
the Northern hemisphere of the planet Earth is a part of the planet Earth at all times at which the planet Earth exists.
[copied from inverse property 'has continuant part at all times that part exists'] forall(t) exists_at(y,t) -> exists_at(x,t) and 'has continuant part'(x,y,t)
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'part of continuant at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'part of continuant@en(x,y,t)'.
BFO 2 Reference: Immaterial entities are in some cases continuant parts of their material hosts. Thus the hold of a ship, for example, is a part of the ship; it may itself have parts, which may have names (used for example by ship stow planners, customs inspectors, and the like). Immaterial entities under both 1. and 2. can be of zero, one, two or three dimensions. We define:a(immaterial entity)[Definition: a is an immaterial entity = Def. a is an independent continuant that has no material entities as parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [028-001])
BFO 2 Reference: a (continuant or occurrent) part of itself. We appreciate that this is counterintuitive for some users, since it implies for example that President Obama is a part of himself. However it brings benefits in simplifying the logical formalism, and it captures an important feature of identity, namely that it is the limit case of mereological inclusion.
BFO2 Reference: continuant
BFO2 Reference: continuantThe range for ‘t’ (as in all cases throughout this document unless otherwise specified) is: temporal region.
[copied from inverse property 'has continuant part at all times that part exists'] This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. Unlike the rest of the temporalized relations which temporally quantify over existence of the subject of the relation, this relation temporally quantifies over the existence of the object of the relation. The relation is provided tentatively, to assess whether the GO needs such a relation. It is inverse of 'part of continuant at all times'
b continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b is a part of c at t & t is a time & b and c are continuants. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [002-001])
continuant_part_of is antisymmetric. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [120-001])
continuant_part_of is reflexive (every continuant entity is a continuant_part_of itself). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [111-002])
continuant_part_of is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [110-001])
continuant_part_of satisfies unique product. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [122-001])
continuant_part_of satisfies weak supplementation. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [121-001])
if b continuant_part_of c at t and b is an independent continuant, then b is located_in c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [047-002])
(forall (x t) (if (Continuant x) (continuantPartOfAt x x t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [111-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (IndependentContinuant x)) (locatedInAt x y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [047-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)) (= x y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [120-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (not (= x y))) (exists (z) (and (continuantPartOfAt z y t) (not (exists (w) (and (continuantPartOfAt w x t) (continuantPartOfAt w z t)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [121-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (exists (v) (and (continuantPartOfAt v x t) (continuantPartOfAt v y t))) (exists (z) (forall (u w) (iff (iff (continuantPartOfAt w u t) (and (continuantPartOfAt w x t) (continuantPartOfAt w y t))) (= z u)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [122-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t)) (continuantPartOfAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [110-001]
(iff (ImmaterialEntity a) (and (IndependentContinuant a) (not (exists (b t) (and (MaterialEntity b) (continuantPartOfAt b a t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [028-001]
part of continuant at all times
BFO 2 Reference: Immaterial entities are in some cases continuant parts of their material hosts. Thus the hold of a ship, for example, is a part of the ship; it may itself have parts, which may have names (used for example by ship stow planners, customs inspectors, and the like). Immaterial entities under both 1. and 2. can be of zero, one, two or three dimensions. We define:a(immaterial entity)[Definition: a is an immaterial entity = Def. a is an independent continuant that has no material entities as parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [028-001])
b continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b is a part of c at t & t is a time & b and c are continuants. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [002-001])
continuant_part_of is antisymmetric. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [120-001])
continuant_part_of is reflexive (every continuant entity is a continuant_part_of itself). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [111-002])
continuant_part_of is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [110-001])
continuant_part_of satisfies unique product. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [122-001])
continuant_part_of satisfies weak supplementation. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [121-001])
if b continuant_part_of c at t and b is an independent continuant, then b is located_in c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [047-002])
(forall (x t) (if (Continuant x) (continuantPartOfAt x x t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [111-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (IndependentContinuant x)) (locatedInAt x y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [047-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)) (= x y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [120-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (not (= x y))) (exists (z) (and (continuantPartOfAt z y t) (not (exists (w) (and (continuantPartOfAt w x t) (continuantPartOfAt w z t)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [121-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (exists (v) (and (continuantPartOfAt v x t) (continuantPartOfAt v y t))) (exists (z) (forall (u w) (iff (iff (continuantPartOfAt w u t) (and (continuantPartOfAt w x t) (continuantPartOfAt w y t))) (= z u)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [122-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t)) (continuantPartOfAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [110-001]
(iff (ImmaterialEntity a) (and (IndependentContinuant a) (not (exists (b t) (and (MaterialEntity b) (continuantPartOfAt b a t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [028-001]
c-has-part_st
hasContinuantPartAt
[copied from inverse property 'part of continuant at some time'] Mary’s arm continuant_part_of Mary in the time of her life prior to her operation
[copied from inverse property 'part of continuant at some time'] the Northern hemisphere of the planet Earth is a part of the planet Earth at all times at which the planet Earth exists.
b has_continuant_part c at t = Def. c continuant_part_of b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [006-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has continuant part at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'has continuant part@en'(x,y,t)
[copied from inverse property 'part of continuant at some time'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'part of continuant at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'part of continuant@en'(x,y,t)
[copied from inverse property 'part of continuant at some time'] BFO 2 Reference: Immaterial entities are in some cases continuant parts of their material hosts. Thus the hold of a ship, for example, is a part of the ship; it may itself have parts, which may have names (used for example by ship stow planners, customs inspectors, and the like). Immaterial entities under both 1. and 2. can be of zero, one, two or three dimensions. We define:a(immaterial entity)[Definition: a is an immaterial entity = Def. a is an independent continuant that has no material entities as parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [028-001])
[copied from inverse property 'part of continuant at some time'] BFO 2 Reference: a (continuant or occurrent) part of itself. We appreciate that this is counterintuitive for some users, since it implies for example that President Obama is a part of himself. However it brings benefits in simplifying the logical formalism, and it captures an important feature of identity, namely that it is the limit case of mereological inclusion.
[copied from inverse property 'part of continuant at some time'] BFO2 Reference: continuant
[copied from inverse property 'part of continuant at some time'] BFO2 Reference: continuantThe range for ‘t’ (as in all cases throughout this document unless otherwise specified) is: temporal region.
[copied from inverse property 'part of continuant at some time'] b continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b is a part of c at t & t is a time & b and c are continuants. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [002-001])
(iff (hasContinuantPartAt a b t) (continuantPartOfAt b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [006-001]
has continuant part at some time
b has_continuant_part c at t = Def. c continuant_part_of b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [006-001])
(iff (hasContinuantPartAt a b t) (continuantPartOfAt b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [006-001]
has-t-ppart
has proper temporal part
history-of
historyOf
[copied from inverse property 'has history'] b has_history c iff c history_of b [XXX-001
b history_of c if c is a material entity or site and b is a history that is the unique history of cAxiom: if b history_of c and b history_of d then c=d [XXX-001
history of
has-history
hasHistory
b has_history c iff c history_of b [XXX-001
[copied from inverse property 'history of'] b history_of c if c is a material entity or site and b is a history that is the unique history of cAxiom: if b history_of c and b history_of d then c=d [XXX-001
has history
c-part-of-object_at
[copied from inverse property 'has continuant part at all times'] b has_continuant_part c at t = Def. c continuant_part_of b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [006-001])
forall(t) exists_at(y,t) -> exists_at(x,t) and 'part of continuant'(x,y,t)
This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. Unlike the rest of the temporalized relations which temporally quantify over existence of the subject of the relation, this relation temporally quantifies over the existence of the object of the relation. The relation is provided tentatively, to assess whether the GO needs such a relation. It is inverse of 'has continuant part at all times'
[copied from inverse property 'has continuant part at all times'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has continuant part at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'has continuant part@en(x,y,t)'.
part of continuant at all times that whole exists
forall(t) exists_at(y,t) -> exists_at(x,t) and 'part of continuant'(x,y,t)
This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. Unlike the rest of the temporalized relations which temporally quantify over existence of the subject of the relation, this relation temporally quantifies over the existence of the object of the relation. The relation is provided tentatively, to assess whether the GO needs such a relation. It is inverse of 'has continuant part at all times'
c-has-part-object_at
[copied from inverse property 'part of continuant at all times'] Mary’s arm continuant_part_of Mary in the time of her life prior to her operation
[copied from inverse property 'part of continuant at all times'] the Northern hemisphere of the planet Earth is a part of the planet Earth at all times at which the planet Earth exists.
forall(t) exists_at(y,t) -> exists_at(x,t) and 'has continuant part'(x,y,t)
This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. Unlike the rest of the temporalized relations which temporally quantify over existence of the subject of the relation, this relation temporally quantifies over the existence of the object of the relation. The relation is provided tentatively, to assess whether the GO needs such a relation. It is inverse of 'part of continuant at all times'
[copied from inverse property 'part of continuant at all times'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'part of continuant at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'part of continuant@en(x,y,t)'.
[copied from inverse property 'part of continuant at all times'] BFO 2 Reference: Immaterial entities are in some cases continuant parts of their material hosts. Thus the hold of a ship, for example, is a part of the ship; it may itself have parts, which may have names (used for example by ship stow planners, customs inspectors, and the like). Immaterial entities under both 1. and 2. can be of zero, one, two or three dimensions. We define:a(immaterial entity)[Definition: a is an immaterial entity = Def. a is an independent continuant that has no material entities as parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [028-001])
[copied from inverse property 'part of continuant at all times'] BFO 2 Reference: a (continuant or occurrent) part of itself. We appreciate that this is counterintuitive for some users, since it implies for example that President Obama is a part of himself. However it brings benefits in simplifying the logical formalism, and it captures an important feature of identity, namely that it is the limit case of mereological inclusion.
[copied from inverse property 'part of continuant at all times'] BFO2 Reference: continuant
[copied from inverse property 'part of continuant at all times'] BFO2 Reference: continuantThe range for ‘t’ (as in all cases throughout this document unless otherwise specified) is: temporal region.
[copied from inverse property 'part of continuant at all times'] b continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b is a part of c at t & t is a time & b and c are continuants. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [002-001])
has continuant part at all times that part exists
forall(t) exists_at(y,t) -> exists_at(x,t) and 'has continuant part'(x,y,t)
This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. Unlike the rest of the temporalized relations which temporally quantify over existence of the subject of the relation, this relation temporally quantifies over the existence of the object of the relation. The relation is provided tentatively, to assess whether the GO needs such a relation. It is inverse of 'part of continuant at all times'
entity
Entity
Julius Caesar
Verdi’s Requiem
the Second World War
your body mass index
BFO 2 Reference: In all areas of empirical inquiry we encounter general terms of two sorts. First are general terms which refer to universals or types:animaltuberculosissurgical procedurediseaseSecond, are general terms used to refer to groups of entities which instantiate a given universal but do not correspond to the extension of any subuniversal of that universal because there is nothing intrinsic to the entities in question by virtue of which they – and only they – are counted as belonging to the given group. Examples are: animal purchased by the Emperortuberculosis diagnosed on a Wednesdaysurgical procedure performed on a patient from Stockholmperson identified as candidate for clinical trial #2056-555person who is signatory of Form 656-PPVpainting by Leonardo da VinciSuch terms, which represent what are called ‘specializations’ in [81
Entity doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. For example Werner Ceusters 'portions of reality' include 4 sorts, entities (as BFO construes them), universals, configurations, and relations. It is an open question as to whether entities as construed in BFO will at some point also include these other portions of reality. See, for example, 'How to track absolutely everything' at http://www.referent-tracking.com/_RTU/papers/CeustersICbookRevised.pdf
An entity is anything that exists or has existed or will exist. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [001-001])
entity
Entity doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. For example Werner Ceusters 'portions of reality' include 4 sorts, entities (as BFO construes them), universals, configurations, and relations. It is an open question as to whether entities as construed in BFO will at some point also include these other portions of reality. See, for example, 'How to track absolutely everything' at http://www.referent-tracking.com/_RTU/papers/CeustersICbookRevised.pdf
per discussion with Barry Smith
An entity is anything that exists or has existed or will exist. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [001-001])
continuant
Continuant
BFO 2 Reference: Continuant entities are entities which can be sliced to yield parts only along the spatial dimension, yielding for example the parts of your table which we call its legs, its top, its nails. ‘My desk stretches from the window to the door. It has spatial parts, and can be sliced (in space) in two. With respect to time, however, a thing is a continuant.’ [60, p. 240
Continuant doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. For example, in an expansion involving bringing in some of Ceuster's other portions of reality, questions are raised as to whether universals are continuants
A continuant is an entity that persists, endures, or continues to exist through time while maintaining its identity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [008-002])
if b is a continuant and if, for some t, c has_continuant_part b at t, then c is a continuant. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [126-001])
if b is a continuant and if, for some t, cis continuant_part of b at t, then c is a continuant. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [009-002])
if b is a material entity, then there is some temporal interval (referred to below as a one-dimensional temporal region) during which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [011-002])
(forall (x y) (if (and (Continuant x) (exists (t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t))) (Continuant y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [009-002]
(forall (x y) (if (and (Continuant x) (exists (t) (hasContinuantPartOfAt y x t))) (Continuant y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [126-001]
(forall (x) (if (Continuant x) (Entity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [008-002]
(forall (x) (if (Material Entity x) (exists (t) (and (TemporalRegion t) (existsAt x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [011-002]
continuant
Continuant doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. For example, in an expansion involving bringing in some of Ceuster's other portions of reality, questions are raised as to whether universals are continuants
A continuant is an entity that persists, endures, or continues to exist through time while maintaining its identity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [008-002])
if b is a continuant and if, for some t, c has_continuant_part b at t, then c is a continuant. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [126-001])
if b is a continuant and if, for some t, cis continuant_part of b at t, then c is a continuant. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [009-002])
if b is a material entity, then there is some temporal interval (referred to below as a one-dimensional temporal region) during which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [011-002])
(forall (x y) (if (and (Continuant x) (exists (t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t))) (Continuant y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [009-002]
(forall (x y) (if (and (Continuant x) (exists (t) (hasContinuantPartOfAt y x t))) (Continuant y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [126-001]
(forall (x) (if (Continuant x) (Entity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [008-002]
(forall (x) (if (Material Entity x) (exists (t) (and (TemporalRegion t) (existsAt x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [011-002]
occurrent
Occurrent
BFO 2 Reference: every occurrent that is not a temporal or spatiotemporal region is s-dependent on some independent continuant that is not a spatial region
BFO 2 Reference: s-dependence obtains between every process and its participants in the sense that, as a matter of necessity, this process could not have existed unless these or those participants existed also. A process may have a succession of participants at different phases of its unfolding. Thus there may be different players on the field at different times during the course of a football game; but the process which is the entire game s-depends_on all of these players nonetheless. Some temporal parts of this process will s-depend_on on only some of the players.
Occurrent doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the sum of a process and the process boundary of another process.
Simons uses different terminology for relations of occurrents to regions: Denote the spatio-temporal location of a given occurrent e by 'spn[e]' and call this region its span. We may say an occurrent is at its span, in any larger region, and covers any smaller region. Now suppose we have fixed a frame of reference so that we can speak not merely of spatio-temporal but also of spatial regions (places) and temporal regions (times). The spread of an occurrent, (relative to a frame of reference) is the space it exactly occupies, and its spell is likewise the time it exactly occupies. We write 'spr[e]' and `spl[e]' respectively for the spread and spell of e, omitting mention of the frame.
An occurrent is an entity that unfolds itself in time or it is the instantaneous boundary of such an entity (for example a beginning or an ending) or it is a temporal or spatiotemporal region which such an entity occupies_temporal_region or occupies_spatiotemporal_region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [077-002])
Every occurrent occupies_spatiotemporal_region some spatiotemporal region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [108-001])
b is an occurrent entity iff b is an entity that has temporal parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [079-001])
(forall (x) (if (Occurrent x) (exists (r) (and (SpatioTemporalRegion r) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion x r))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [108-001]
(forall (x) (iff (Occurrent x) (and (Entity x) (exists (y) (temporalPartOf y x))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [079-001]
occurrent
Occurrent doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the sum of a process and the process boundary of another process.
per discussion with Barry Smith
Simons uses different terminology for relations of occurrents to regions: Denote the spatio-temporal location of a given occurrent e by 'spn[e]' and call this region its span. We may say an occurrent is at its span, in any larger region, and covers any smaller region. Now suppose we have fixed a frame of reference so that we can speak not merely of spatio-temporal but also of spatial regions (places) and temporal regions (times). The spread of an occurrent, (relative to a frame of reference) is the space it exactly occupies, and its spell is likewise the time it exactly occupies. We write 'spr[e]' and `spl[e]' respectively for the spread and spell of e, omitting mention of the frame.
An occurrent is an entity that unfolds itself in time or it is the instantaneous boundary of such an entity (for example a beginning or an ending) or it is a temporal or spatiotemporal region which such an entity occupies_temporal_region or occupies_spatiotemporal_region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [077-002])
Every occurrent occupies_spatiotemporal_region some spatiotemporal region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [108-001])
b is an occurrent entity iff b is an entity that has temporal parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [079-001])
(forall (x) (if (Occurrent x) (exists (r) (and (SpatioTemporalRegion r) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion x r))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [108-001]
(forall (x) (iff (Occurrent x) (and (Entity x) (exists (y) (temporalPartOf y x))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [079-001]
ic
IndependentContinuant
a chair
a heart
a leg
a molecule
a spatial region
an atom
an orchestra.
an organism
the bottom right portion of a human torso
the interior of your mouth
b is an independent continuant = Def. b is a continuant which is such that there is no c and no t such that b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [017-002])
For any independent continuant b and any time t there is some spatial region r such that b is located_in r at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [134-001])
For every independent continuant b and time t during the region of time spanned by its life, there are entities which s-depends_on b during t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [018-002])
(forall (x t) (if (IndependentContinuant x) (exists (r) (and (SpatialRegion r) (locatedInAt x r t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [134-001]
(forall (x t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (existsAt x t)) (exists (y) (and (Entity y) (specificallyDependsOnAt y x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [018-002]
(iff (IndependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (not (exists (b t) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [017-002]
independent continuant
b is an independent continuant = Def. b is a continuant which is such that there is no c and no t such that b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [017-002])
For any independent continuant b and any time t there is some spatial region r such that b is located_in r at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [134-001])
For every independent continuant b and time t during the region of time spanned by its life, there are entities which s-depends_on b during t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [018-002])
(forall (x t) (if (IndependentContinuant x) (exists (r) (and (SpatialRegion r) (locatedInAt x r t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [134-001]
(forall (x t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (existsAt x t)) (exists (y) (and (Entity y) (specificallyDependsOnAt y x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [018-002]
(iff (IndependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (not (exists (b t) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [017-002]
s-region
SpatialRegion
BFO 2 Reference: Spatial regions do not participate in processes.
Spatial region doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the union of a spatial point and a spatial line that doesn't overlap the point, or two spatial lines that intersect at a single point. In both cases the resultant spatial region is neither 0-dimensional, 1-dimensional, 2-dimensional, or 3-dimensional.
A spatial region is a continuant entity that is a continuant_part_of spaceR as defined relative to some frame R. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [035-001])
All continuant parts of spatial regions are spatial regions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [036-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (SpatialRegion x) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)) (SpatialRegion y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [036-001]
(forall (x) (if (SpatialRegion x) (Continuant x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [035-001]
spatial region
true
true
Spatial region doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the union of a spatial point and a spatial line that doesn't overlap the point, or two spatial lines that intersect at a single point. In both cases the resultant spatial region is neither 0-dimensional, 1-dimensional, 2-dimensional, or 3-dimensional.
per discussion with Barry Smith
A spatial region is a continuant entity that is a continuant_part_of spaceR as defined relative to some frame R. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [035-001])
All continuant parts of spatial regions are spatial regions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [036-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (SpatialRegion x) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)) (SpatialRegion y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [036-001]
(forall (x) (if (SpatialRegion x) (Continuant x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [035-001]
t-region
TemporalRegion
Temporal region doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the mereological sum of a temporal instant and a temporal interval that doesn't overlap the instant. In this case the resultant temporal region is neither 0-dimensional nor 1-dimensional
A temporal region is an occurrent entity that is part of time as defined relative to some reference frame. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [100-001])
All parts of temporal regions are temporal regions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [101-001])
Every temporal region t is such that t occupies_temporal_region t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [119-002])
(forall (r) (if (TemporalRegion r) (occupiesTemporalRegion r r))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [119-002]
(forall (x y) (if (and (TemporalRegion x) (occurrentPartOf y x)) (TemporalRegion y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [101-001]
(forall (x) (if (TemporalRegion x) (Occurrent x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [100-001]
temporal region
true
true
Temporal region doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the mereological sum of a temporal instant and a temporal interval that doesn't overlap the instant. In this case the resultant temporal region is neither 0-dimensional nor 1-dimensional
per discussion with Barry Smith
A temporal region is an occurrent entity that is part of time as defined relative to some reference frame. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [100-001])
All parts of temporal regions are temporal regions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [101-001])
Every temporal region t is such that t occupies_temporal_region t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [119-002])
(forall (r) (if (TemporalRegion r) (occupiesTemporalRegion r r))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [119-002]
(forall (x y) (if (and (TemporalRegion x) (occurrentPartOf y x)) (TemporalRegion y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [101-001]
(forall (x) (if (TemporalRegion x) (Occurrent x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [100-001]
2d-s-region
TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion
an infinitely thin plane in space.
the surface of a sphere-shaped part of space
A two-dimensional spatial region is a spatial region that is of two dimensions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [039-001])
(forall (x) (if (TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [039-001]
two-dimensional spatial region
A two-dimensional spatial region is a spatial region that is of two dimensions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [039-001])
(forall (x) (if (TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [039-001]
st-region
SpatiotemporalRegion
the spatiotemporal region occupied by a human life
the spatiotemporal region occupied by a process of cellular meiosis.
the spatiotemporal region occupied by the development of a cancer tumor
A spatiotemporal region is an occurrent entity that is part of spacetime. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [095-001])
All parts of spatiotemporal regions are spatiotemporal regions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [096-001])
Each spatiotemporal region at any time t projects_onto some spatial region at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [099-001])
Each spatiotemporal region projects_onto some temporal region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [098-001])
Every spatiotemporal region occupies_spatiotemporal_region itself.
Every spatiotemporal region s is such that s occupies_spatiotemporal_region s. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [107-002])
(forall (r) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion r) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion r r))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [107-002]
(forall (x t) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (exists (y) (and (SpatialRegion y) (spatiallyProjectsOntoAt x y t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [099-001]
(forall (x y) (if (and (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (occurrentPartOf y x)) (SpatioTemporalRegion y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [096-001]
(forall (x) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (Occurrent x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [095-001]
(forall (x) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (exists (y) (and (TemporalRegion y) (temporallyProjectsOnto x y))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [098-001]
spatiotemporal region
true
true
A spatiotemporal region is an occurrent entity that is part of spacetime. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [095-001])
All parts of spatiotemporal regions are spatiotemporal regions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [096-001])
Each spatiotemporal region at any time t projects_onto some spatial region at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [099-001])
Each spatiotemporal region projects_onto some temporal region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [098-001])
Every spatiotemporal region s is such that s occupies_spatiotemporal_region s. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [107-002])
(forall (r) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion r) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion r r))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [107-002]
(forall (x t) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (exists (y) (and (SpatialRegion y) (spatiallyProjectsOntoAt x y t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [099-001]
(forall (x y) (if (and (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (occurrentPartOf y x)) (SpatioTemporalRegion y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [096-001]
(forall (x) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (Occurrent x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [095-001]
(forall (x) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (exists (y) (and (TemporalRegion y) (temporallyProjectsOnto x y))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [098-001]
process
Process
a process of cell-division, \ a beating of the heart
a process of meiosis
a process of sleeping
the course of a disease
the flight of a bird
the life of an organism
your process of aging.
p is a process = Def. p is an occurrent that has temporal proper parts and for some time t, p s-depends_on some material entity at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [083-003])
BFO 2 Reference: The realm of occurrents is less pervasively marked by the presence of natural units than is the case in the realm of independent continuants. Thus there is here no counterpart of ‘object’. In BFO 1.0 ‘process’ served as such a counterpart. In BFO 2.0 ‘process’ is, rather, the occurrent counterpart of ‘material entity’. Those natural – as contrasted with engineered, which here means: deliberately executed – units which do exist in the realm of occurrents are typically either parasitic on the existence of natural units on the continuant side, or they are fiat in nature. Thus we can count lives; we can count football games; we can count chemical reactions performed in experiments or in chemical manufacturing. We cannot count the processes taking place, for instance, in an episode of insect mating behavior.Even where natural units are identifiable, for example cycles in a cyclical process such as the beating of a heart or an organism’s sleep/wake cycle, the processes in question form a sequence with no discontinuities (temporal gaps) of the sort that we find for instance where billiard balls or zebrafish or planets are separated by clear spatial gaps. Lives of organisms are process units, but they too unfold in a continuous series from other, prior processes such as fertilization, and they unfold in turn in continuous series of post-life processes such as post-mortem decay. Clear examples of boundaries of processes are almost always of the fiat sort (midnight, a time of death as declared in an operating theater or on a death certificate, the initiation of a state of war)
(iff (Process a) (and (Occurrent a) (exists (b) (properTemporalPartOf b a)) (exists (c t) (and (MaterialEntity c) (specificallyDependsOnAt a c t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [083-003]
process
p is a process = Def. p is an occurrent that has temporal proper parts and for some time t, p s-depends_on some material entity at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [083-003])
(iff (Process a) (and (Occurrent a) (exists (b) (properTemporalPartOf b a)) (exists (c t) (and (MaterialEntity c) (specificallyDependsOnAt a c t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [083-003]
disposition
Disposition
an atom of element X has the disposition to decay to an atom of element Y
certain people have a predisposition to colon cancer
children are innately disposed to categorize objects in certain ways.
the cell wall is disposed to filter chemicals in endocytosis and exocytosis
BFO 2 Reference: Dispositions exist along a strength continuum. Weaker forms of disposition are realized in only a fraction of triggering cases. These forms occur in a significant number of cases of a similar type.
b is a disposition means: b is a realizable entity & b’s bearer is some material entity & b is such that if it ceases to exist, then its bearer is physically changed, & b’s realization occurs when and because this bearer is in some special physical circumstances, & this realization occurs in virtue of the bearer’s physical make-up. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [062-002])
If b is a realizable entity then for all t at which b exists, b s-depends_on some material entity at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [063-002])
(forall (x t) (if (and (RealizableEntity x) (existsAt x t)) (exists (y) (and (MaterialEntity y) (specificallyDepends x y t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [063-002]
(forall (x) (if (Disposition x) (and (RealizableEntity x) (exists (y) (and (MaterialEntity y) (bearerOfAt x y t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [062-002]
disposition
b is a disposition means: b is a realizable entity & b’s bearer is some material entity & b is such that if it ceases to exist, then its bearer is physically changed, & b’s realization occurs when and because this bearer is in some special physical circumstances, & this realization occurs in virtue of the bearer’s physical make-up. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [062-002])
If b is a realizable entity then for all t at which b exists, b s-depends_on some material entity at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [063-002])
(forall (x t) (if (and (RealizableEntity x) (existsAt x t)) (exists (y) (and (MaterialEntity y) (specificallyDepends x y t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [063-002]
(forall (x) (if (Disposition x) (and (RealizableEntity x) (exists (y) (and (MaterialEntity y) (bearerOfAt x y t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [062-002]
realizable
RealizableEntity
the disposition of this piece of metal to conduct electricity.
the disposition of your blood to coagulate
the function of your reproductive organs
the role of being a doctor
the role of this boundary to delineate where Utah and Colorado meet
To say that b is a realizable entity is to say that b is a specifically dependent continuant that inheres in some independent continuant which is not a spatial region and is of a type instances of which are realized in processes of a correlated type. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [058-002])
All realizable dependent continuants have independent continuants that are not spatial regions as their bearers. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [060-002])
(forall (x t) (if (RealizableEntity x) (exists (y) (and (IndependentContinuant y) (not (SpatialRegion y)) (bearerOfAt y x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [060-002]
(forall (x) (if (RealizableEntity x) (and (SpecificallyDependentContinuant x) (exists (y) (and (IndependentContinuant y) (not (SpatialRegion y)) (inheresIn x y)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [058-002]
realizable entity
To say that b is a realizable entity is to say that b is a specifically dependent continuant that inheres in some independent continuant which is not a spatial region and is of a type instances of which are realized in processes of a correlated type. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [058-002])
All realizable dependent continuants have independent continuants that are not spatial regions as their bearers. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [060-002])
(forall (x t) (if (RealizableEntity x) (exists (y) (and (IndependentContinuant y) (not (SpatialRegion y)) (bearerOfAt y x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [060-002]
(forall (x) (if (RealizableEntity x) (and (SpecificallyDependentContinuant x) (exists (y) (and (IndependentContinuant y) (not (SpatialRegion y)) (inheresIn x y)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [058-002]
0d-s-region
ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion
A zero-dimensional spatial region is a point in space. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [037-001])
(forall (x) (if (ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [037-001]
zero-dimensional spatial region
A zero-dimensional spatial region is a point in space. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [037-001])
(forall (x) (if (ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [037-001]
quality
Quality
the ambient temperature of this portion of air
the color of a tomato
the length of the circumference of your waist
the mass of this piece of gold.
the shape of your nose
the shape of your nostril
a quality is a specifically dependent continuant that, in contrast to roles and dispositions, does not require any further process in order to be realized. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [055-001])
If an entity is a quality at any time that it exists, then it is a quality at every time that it exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [105-001])
(forall (x) (if (Quality x) (SpecificallyDependentContinuant x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [055-001]
(forall (x) (if (exists (t) (and (existsAt x t) (Quality x))) (forall (t_1) (if (existsAt x t_1) (Quality x))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [105-001]
quality
a quality is a specifically dependent continuant that, in contrast to roles and dispositions, does not require any further process in order to be realized. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [055-001])
If an entity is a quality at any time that it exists, then it is a quality at every time that it exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [105-001])
(forall (x) (if (Quality x) (SpecificallyDependentContinuant x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [055-001]
(forall (x) (if (exists (t) (and (existsAt x t) (Quality x))) (forall (t_1) (if (existsAt x t_1) (Quality x))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [105-001]
sdc
SpecificallyDependentContinuant
Reciprocal specifically dependent continuants: the function of this key to open this lock and the mutually dependent disposition of this lock: to be opened by this key
of one-sided specifically dependent continuants: the mass of this tomato
of relational dependent continuants (multiple bearers): John’s love for Mary, the ownership relation between John and this statue, the relation of authority between John and his subordinates.
the disposition of this fish to decay
the function of this heart: to pump blood
the mutual dependence of proton donors and acceptors in chemical reactions [79
the mutual dependence of the role predator and the role prey as played by two organisms in a given interaction
the pink color of a medium rare piece of grilled filet mignon at its center
the role of being a doctor
the shape of this hole.
the smell of this portion of mozzarella
b is a relational specifically dependent continuant = Def. b is a specifically dependent continuant and there are n > 1 independent continuants c1, … cn which are not spatial regions are such that for all 1 i < j n, ci and cj share no common parts, are such that for each 1 i n, b s-depends_on ci at every time t during the course of b’s existence (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [131-004])
b is a specifically dependent continuant = Def. b is a continuant & there is some independent continuant c which is not a spatial region and which is such that b s-depends_on c at every time t during the course of b’s existence. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [050-003])
Specifically dependent continuant doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. We're not sure what else will develop here, but for example there are questions such as what are promises, obligation, etc.
(iff (RelationalSpecificallyDependentContinuant a) (and (SpecificallyDependentContinuant a) (forall (t) (exists (b c) (and (not (SpatialRegion b)) (not (SpatialRegion c)) (not (= b c)) (not (exists (d) (and (continuantPartOfAt d b t) (continuantPartOfAt d c t)))) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t) (specificallyDependsOnAt a c t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [131-004]
(iff (SpecificallyDependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (forall (t) (if (existsAt a t) (exists (b) (and (IndependentContinuant b) (not (SpatialRegion b)) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [050-003]
specifically dependent continuant
b is a relational specifically dependent continuant = Def. b is a specifically dependent continuant and there are n > 1 independent continuants c1, … cn which are not spatial regions are such that for all 1 i < j n, ci and cj share no common parts, are such that for each 1 i n, b s-depends_on ci at every time t during the course of b’s existence (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [131-004])
b is a specifically dependent continuant = Def. b is a continuant & there is some independent continuant c which is not a spatial region and which is such that b s-depends_on c at every time t during the course of b’s existence. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [050-003])
Specifically dependent continuant doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. We're not sure what else will develop here, but for example there are questions such as what are promises, obligation, etc.
per discussion with Barry Smith
(iff (RelationalSpecificallyDependentContinuant a) (and (SpecificallyDependentContinuant a) (forall (t) (exists (b c) (and (not (SpatialRegion b)) (not (SpatialRegion c)) (not (= b c)) (not (exists (d) (and (continuantPartOfAt d b t) (continuantPartOfAt d c t)))) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t) (specificallyDependsOnAt a c t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [131-004]
(iff (SpecificallyDependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (forall (t) (if (existsAt a t) (exists (b) (and (IndependentContinuant b) (not (SpatialRegion b)) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [050-003]
role
Role
John’s role of husband to Mary is dependent on Mary’s role of wife to John, and both are dependent on the object aggregate comprising John and Mary as member parts joined together through the relational quality of being married.
the priest role
the role of a boundary to demarcate two neighboring administrative territories
the role of a building in serving as a military target
the role of a stone in marking a property boundary
the role of subject in a clinical trial
the student role
BFO 2 Reference: One major family of examples of non-rigid universals involves roles, and ontologies developed for corresponding administrative purposes may consist entirely of representatives of entities of this sort. Thus ‘professor’, defined as follows,b instance_of professor at t =Def. there is some c, c instance_of professor role & c inheres_in b at t.denotes a non-rigid universal and so also do ‘nurse’, ‘student’, ‘colonel’, ‘taxpayer’, and so forth. (These terms are all, in the jargon of philosophy, phase sortals.) By using role terms in definitions, we can create a BFO conformant treatment of such entities drawing on the fact that, while an instance of professor may be simultaneously an instance of trade union member, no instance of the type professor role is also (at any time) an instance of the type trade union member role (any more than any instance of the type color is at any time an instance of the type length).If an ontology of employment positions should be defined in terms of roles following the above pattern, this enables the ontology to do justice to the fact that individuals instantiate the corresponding universals – professor, sergeant, nurse – only during certain phases in their lives.
b is a role means: b is a realizable entity & b exists because there is some single bearer that is in some special physical, social, or institutional set of circumstances in which this bearer does not have to be& b is not such that, if it ceases to exist, then the physical make-up of the bearer is thereby changed. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [061-001])
(forall (x) (if (Role x) (RealizableEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [061-001]
role
b is a role means: b is a realizable entity & b exists because there is some single bearer that is in some special physical, social, or institutional set of circumstances in which this bearer does not have to be& b is not such that, if it ceases to exist, then the physical make-up of the bearer is thereby changed. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [061-001])
(forall (x) (if (Role x) (RealizableEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [061-001]
fiat-object
FiatObjectPart
or with divisions drawn by cognitive subjects for practical reasons, such as the division of a cake (before slicing) into (what will become) slices (and thus member parts of an object aggregate). However, this does not mean that fiat object parts are dependent for their existence on divisions or delineations effected by cognitive subjects. If, for example, it is correct to conceive geological layers of the Earth as fiat object parts of the Earth, then even though these layers were first delineated in recent times, still existed long before such delineation and what holds of these layers (for example that the oldest layers are also the lowest layers) did not begin to hold because of our acts of delineation.Treatment of material entity in BFOExamples viewed by some as problematic cases for the trichotomy of fiat object part, object, and object aggregate include: a mussel on (and attached to) a rock, a slime mold, a pizza, a cloud, a galaxy, a railway train with engine and multiple carriages, a clonal stand of quaking aspen, a bacterial community (biofilm), a broken femur. Note that, as Aristotle already clearly recognized, such problematic cases – which lie at or near the penumbra of instances defined by the categories in question – need not invalidate these categories. The existence of grey objects does not prove that there are not objects which are black and objects which are white; the existence of mules does not prove that there are not objects which are donkeys and objects which are horses. It does, however, show that the examples in question need to be addressed carefully in order to show how they can be fitted into the proposed scheme, for example by recognizing additional subdivisions [29
the FMA:regional parts of an intact human body.
the Western hemisphere of the Earth
the division of the brain into regions
the division of the planet into hemispheres
the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the body
the upper and lower lobes of the left lung
BFO 2 Reference: Most examples of fiat object parts are associated with theoretically drawn divisions
b is a fiat object part = Def. b is a material entity which is such that for all times t, if b exists at t then there is some object c such that b proper continuant_part of c at t and c is demarcated from the remainder of c by a two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [027-004])
(forall (x) (if (FiatObjectPart x) (and (MaterialEntity x) (forall (t) (if (existsAt x t) (exists (y) (and (Object y) (properContinuantPartOfAt x y t)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [027-004]
fiat object
b is a fiat object part = Def. b is a material entity which is such that for all times t, if b exists at t then there is some object c such that b proper continuant_part of c at t and c is demarcated from the remainder of c by a two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [027-004])
(forall (x) (if (FiatObjectPart x) (and (MaterialEntity x) (forall (t) (if (existsAt x t) (exists (y) (and (Object y) (properContinuantPartOfAt x y t)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [027-004]
1d-s-region
OneDimensionalSpatialRegion
an edge of a cube-shaped portion of space.
A one-dimensional spatial region is a line or aggregate of lines stretching from one point in space to another. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [038-001])
(forall (x) (if (OneDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [038-001]
one-dimensional spatial region
A one-dimensional spatial region is a line or aggregate of lines stretching from one point in space to another. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [038-001])
(forall (x) (if (OneDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [038-001]
object-aggregate
ObjectAggregate
a collection of cells in a blood biobank.
a swarm of bees is an aggregate of members who are linked together through natural bonds
a symphony orchestra
an organization is an aggregate whose member parts have roles of specific types (for example in a jazz band, a chess club, a football team)
defined by fiat: the aggregate of members of an organization
defined through physical attachment: the aggregate of atoms in a lump of granite
defined through physical containment: the aggregate of molecules of carbon dioxide in a sealed container
defined via attributive delimitations such as: the patients in this hospital
the aggregate of bearings in a constant velocity axle joint
the aggregate of blood cells in your body
the nitrogen atoms in the atmosphere
the restaurants in Palo Alto
your collection of Meissen ceramic plates.
An entity a is an object aggregate if and only if there is a mutually exhaustive and pairwise disjoint partition of a into objects
BFO 2 Reference: object aggregates may gain and lose parts while remaining numerically identical (one and the same individual) over time. This holds both for aggregates whose membership is determined naturally (the aggregate of cells in your body) and aggregates determined by fiat (a baseball team, a congressional committee).
ISBN:978-3-938793-98-5pp124-158#Thomas Bittner and Barry Smith, 'A Theory of Granular Partitions', in K. Munn and B. Smith (eds.), Applied Ontology: An Introduction, Frankfurt/Lancaster: ontos, 2008, 125-158.
b is an object aggregate means: b is a material entity consisting exactly of a plurality of objects as member_parts at all times at which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [025-004])
(forall (x) (if (ObjectAggregate x) (and (MaterialEntity x) (forall (t) (if (existsAt x t) (exists (y z) (and (Object y) (Object z) (memberPartOfAt y x t) (memberPartOfAt z x t) (not (= y z)))))) (not (exists (w t_1) (and (memberPartOfAt w x t_1) (not (Object w)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [025-004]
object aggregate
An entity a is an object aggregate if and only if there is a mutually exhaustive and pairwise disjoint partition of a into objects
An entity a is an object aggregate if and only if there is a mutually exhaustive and pairwise disjoint partition of a into objects
ISBN:978-3-938793-98-5pp124-158#Thomas Bittner and Barry Smith, 'A Theory of Granular Partitions', in K. Munn and B. Smith (eds.), Applied Ontology: An Introduction, Frankfurt/Lancaster: ontos, 2008, 125-158.
b is an object aggregate means: b is a material entity consisting exactly of a plurality of objects as member_parts at all times at which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [025-004])
(forall (x) (if (ObjectAggregate x) (and (MaterialEntity x) (forall (t) (if (existsAt x t) (exists (y z) (and (Object y) (Object z) (memberPartOfAt y x t) (memberPartOfAt z x t) (not (= y z)))))) (not (exists (w t_1) (and (memberPartOfAt w x t_1) (not (Object w)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [025-004]
3d-s-region
ThreeDimensionalSpatialRegion
a cube-shaped region of space
a sphere-shaped region of space,
A three-dimensional spatial region is a spatial region that is of three dimensions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [040-001])
(forall (x) (if (ThreeDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [040-001]
three-dimensional spatial region
A three-dimensional spatial region is a spatial region that is of three dimensions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [040-001])
(forall (x) (if (ThreeDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [040-001]
site
Site
Manhattan Canyon)
a hole in the interior of a portion of cheese
a rabbit hole
an air traffic control region defined in the airspace above an airport
the Grand Canyon
the Piazza San Marco
the cockpit of an aircraft
the hold of a ship
the interior of a kangaroo pouch
the interior of the trunk of your car
the interior of your bedroom
the interior of your office
the interior of your refrigerator
the lumen of your gut
your left nostril (a fiat part – the opening – of your left nasal cavity)
b is a site means: b is a three-dimensional immaterial entity that is (partially or wholly) bounded by a material entity or it is a three-dimensional immaterial part thereof. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [034-002])
(forall (x) (if (Site x) (ImmaterialEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [034-002]
site
b is a site means: b is a three-dimensional immaterial entity that is (partially or wholly) bounded by a material entity or it is a three-dimensional immaterial part thereof. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [034-002])
(forall (x) (if (Site x) (ImmaterialEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [034-002]
object
Object
atom
cell
cells and organisms
engineered artifacts
grain of sand
molecule
organelle
organism
planet
solid portions of matter
star
BFO 2 Reference: BFO rests on the presupposition that at multiple micro-, meso- and macroscopic scales reality exhibits certain stable, spatially separated or separable material units, combined or combinable into aggregates of various sorts (for example organisms into what are called ‘populations’). Such units play a central role in almost all domains of natural science from particle physics to cosmology. Many scientific laws govern the units in question, employing general terms (such as ‘molecule’ or ‘planet’) referring to the types and subtypes of units, and also to the types and subtypes of the processes through which such units develop and interact. The division of reality into such natural units is at the heart of biological science, as also is the fact that these units may form higher-level units (as cells form multicellular organisms) and that they may also form aggregates of units, for example as cells form portions of tissue and organs form families, herds, breeds, species, and so on. At the same time, the division of certain portions of reality into engineered units (manufactured artifacts) is the basis of modern industrial technology, which rests on the distributed mass production of engineered parts through division of labor and on their assembly into larger, compound units such as cars and laptops. The division of portions of reality into units is one starting point for the phenomenon of counting.
BFO 2 Reference: Each object is such that there are entities of which we can assert unproblematically that they lie in its interior, and other entities of which we can assert unproblematically that they lie in its exterior. This may not be so for entities lying at or near the boundary between the interior and exterior. This means that two objects – for example the two cells depicted in Figure 3 – may be such that there are material entities crossing their boundaries which belong determinately to neither cell. Something similar obtains in certain cases of conjoined twins (see below).
BFO 2 Reference: To say that b is causally unified means: b is a material entity which is such that its material parts are tied together in such a way that, in environments typical for entities of the type in question,if c, a continuant part of b that is in the interior of b at t, is larger than a certain threshold size (which will be determined differently from case to case, depending on factors such as porosity of external cover) and is moved in space to be at t at a location on the exterior of the spatial region that had been occupied by b at t, then either b’s other parts will be moved in coordinated fashion or b will be damaged (be affected, for example, by breakage or tearing) in the interval between t and t.causal changes in one part of b can have consequences for other parts of b without the mediation of any entity that lies on the exterior of b. Material entities with no proper material parts would satisfy these conditions trivially. Candidate examples of types of causal unity for material entities of more complex sorts are as follows (this is not intended to be an exhaustive list):CU1: Causal unity via physical coveringHere the parts in the interior of the unified entity are combined together causally through a common membrane or other physical covering\. The latter points outwards toward and may serve a protective function in relation to what lies on the exterior of the entity [13, 47
BFO 2 Reference: an object is a maximal causally unified material entity
BFO 2 Reference: ‘objects’ are sometimes referred to as ‘grains’ [74
b is an object means: b is a material entity which manifests causal unity of one or other of the types CUn listed above & is of a type (a material universal) instances of which are maximal relative to this criterion of causal unity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [024-001])
object
b is an object means: b is a material entity which manifests causal unity of one or other of the types CUn listed above & is of a type (a material universal) instances of which are maximal relative to this criterion of causal unity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [024-001])
gdc
GenericallyDependentContinuant
The entries in your database are patterns instantiated as quality instances in your hard drive. The database itself is an aggregate of such patterns. When you create the database you create a particular instance of the generically dependent continuant type database. Each entry in the database is an instance of the generically dependent continuant type IAO: information content entity.
the pdf file on your laptop, the pdf file that is a copy thereof on my laptop
the sequence of this protein molecule; the sequence that is a copy thereof in that protein molecule.
b is a generically dependent continuant = Def. b is a continuant that g-depends_on one or more other entities. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [074-001])
(iff (GenericallyDependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (exists (b t) (genericallyDependsOnAt a b t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [074-001]
generically dependent continuant
b is a generically dependent continuant = Def. b is a continuant that g-depends_on one or more other entities. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [074-001])
(iff (GenericallyDependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (exists (b t) (genericallyDependsOnAt a b t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [074-001]
function
Function
the function of a hammer to drive in nails
the function of a heart pacemaker to regulate the beating of a heart through electricity
the function of amylase in saliva to break down starch into sugar
BFO 2 Reference: In the past, we have distinguished two varieties of function, artifactual function and biological function. These are not asserted subtypes of BFO:function however, since the same function – for example: to pump, to transport – can exist both in artifacts and in biological entities. The asserted subtypes of function that would be needed in order to yield a separate monoheirarchy are not artifactual function, biological function, etc., but rather transporting function, pumping function, etc.
A function is a disposition that exists in virtue of the bearer’s physical make-up and this physical make-up is something the bearer possesses because it came into being, either through evolution (in the case of natural biological entities) or through intentional design (in the case of artifacts), in order to realize processes of a certain sort. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [064-001])
(forall (x) (if (Function x) (Disposition x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [064-001]
function
A function is a disposition that exists in virtue of the bearer’s physical make-up and this physical make-up is something the bearer possesses because it came into being, either through evolution (in the case of natural biological entities) or through intentional design (in the case of artifacts), in order to realize processes of a certain sort. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [064-001])
(forall (x) (if (Function x) (Disposition x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [064-001]
p-boundary
ProcessBoundary
the boundary between the 2nd and 3rd year of your life.
p is a process boundary =Def. p is a temporal part of a process & p has no proper temporal parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [084-001])
Every process boundary occupies_temporal_region a zero-dimensional temporal region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [085-002])
(forall (x) (if (ProcessBoundary x) (exists (y) (and (ZeroDimensionalTemporalRegion y) (occupiesTemporalRegion x y))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [085-002]
(iff (ProcessBoundary a) (exists (p) (and (Process p) (temporalPartOf a p) (not (exists (b) (properTemporalPartOf b a)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [084-001]
process boundary
p is a process boundary =Def. p is a temporal part of a process & p has no proper temporal parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [084-001])
Every process boundary occupies_temporal_region a zero-dimensional temporal region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [085-002])
(forall (x) (if (ProcessBoundary x) (exists (y) (and (ZeroDimensionalTemporalRegion y) (occupiesTemporalRegion x y))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [085-002]
(iff (ProcessBoundary a) (exists (p) (and (Process p) (temporalPartOf a p) (not (exists (b) (properTemporalPartOf b a)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [084-001]
1d-t-region
OneDimensionalTemporalRegion
the temporal region during which a process occurs.
BFO 2 Reference: A temporal interval is a special kind of one-dimensional temporal region, namely one that is self-connected (is without gaps or breaks).
A one-dimensional temporal region is a temporal region that is extended. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [103-001])
(forall (x) (if (OneDimensionalTemporalRegion x) (TemporalRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [103-001]
one-dimensional temporal region
A one-dimensional temporal region is a temporal region that is extended. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [103-001])
(forall (x) (if (OneDimensionalTemporalRegion x) (TemporalRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [103-001]
material
MaterialEntity
a flame
a forest fire
a human being
a hurricane
a photon
a puff of smoke
a sea wave
a tornado
an aggregate of human beings.
an energy wave
an epidemic
the undetached arm of a human being
BFO 2 Reference: Material entities (continuants) can preserve their identity even while gaining and losing material parts. Continuants are contrasted with occurrents, which unfold themselves in successive temporal parts or phases [60
BFO 2 Reference: Object, Fiat Object Part and Object Aggregate are not intended to be exhaustive of Material Entity. Users are invited to propose new subcategories of Material Entity.
BFO 2 Reference: ‘Matter’ is intended to encompass both mass and energy (we will address the ontological treatment of portions of energy in a later version of BFO). A portion of matter is anything that includes elementary particles among its proper or improper parts: quarks and leptons, including electrons, as the smallest particles thus far discovered; baryons (including protons and neutrons) at a higher level of granularity; atoms and molecules at still higher levels, forming the cells, organs, organisms and other material entities studied by biologists, the portions of rock studied by geologists, the fossils studied by paleontologists, and so on.Material entities are three-dimensional entities (entities extended in three spatial dimensions), as contrasted with the processes in which they participate, which are four-dimensional entities (entities extended also along the dimension of time).According to the FMA, material entities may have immaterial entities as parts – including the entities identified below as sites; for example the interior (or ‘lumen’) of your small intestine is a part of your body. BFO 2.0 embodies a decision to follow the FMA here.
A material entity is an independent continuant that has some portion of matter as proper or improper continuant part. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [019-002])
Every entity which has a material entity as continuant part is a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [020-002])
every entity of which a material entity is continuant part is also a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [021-002])
(forall (x) (if (MaterialEntity x) (IndependentContinuant x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [019-002]
(forall (x) (if (and (Entity x) (exists (y t) (and (MaterialEntity y) (continuantPartOfAt x y t)))) (MaterialEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [021-002]
(forall (x) (if (and (Entity x) (exists (y t) (and (MaterialEntity y) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)))) (MaterialEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [020-002]
material entity
A material entity is an independent continuant that has some portion of matter as proper or improper continuant part. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [019-002])
Every entity which has a material entity as continuant part is a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [020-002])
every entity of which a material entity is continuant part is also a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [021-002])
(forall (x) (if (MaterialEntity x) (IndependentContinuant x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [019-002]
(forall (x) (if (and (Entity x) (exists (y t) (and (MaterialEntity y) (continuantPartOfAt x y t)))) (MaterialEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [021-002]
(forall (x) (if (and (Entity x) (exists (y t) (and (MaterialEntity y) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)))) (MaterialEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [020-002]
cf-boundary
ContinuantFiatBoundary
b is a continuant fiat boundary = Def. b is an immaterial entity that is of zero, one or two dimensions and does not include a spatial region as part. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [029-001])
BFO 2 Reference: In BFO 1.1 the assumption was made that the external surface of a material entity such as a cell could be treated as if it were a boundary in the mathematical sense. The new document propounds the view that when we talk about external surfaces of material objects in this way then we are talking about something fiat. To be dealt with in a future version: fiat boundaries at different levels of granularity.More generally, the focus in discussion of boundaries in BFO 2.0 is now on fiat boundaries, which means: boundaries for which there is no assumption that they coincide with physical discontinuities. The ontology of boundaries becomes more closely allied with the ontology of regions.
BFO 2 Reference: a continuant fiat boundary is a boundary of some material entity (for example: the plane separating the Northern and Southern hemispheres; the North Pole), or it is a boundary of some immaterial entity (for example of some portion of airspace). Three basic kinds of continuant fiat boundary can be distinguished (together with various combination kinds [29
Continuant fiat boundary doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the mereological sum of two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary and a one dimensional continuant fiat boundary that doesn't overlap it. The situation is analogous to temporal and spatial regions.
Every continuant fiat boundary is located at some spatial region at every time at which it exists
(iff (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ImmaterialEntity a) (exists (b) (and (or (ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (OneDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion b)) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))) (not (exists (c t) (and (SpatialRegion c) (continuantPartOfAt c a t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [029-001]
continuant fiat boundary
b is a continuant fiat boundary = Def. b is an immaterial entity that is of zero, one or two dimensions and does not include a spatial region as part. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [029-001])
Continuant fiat boundary doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the mereological sum of two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary and a one dimensional continuant fiat boundary that doesn't overlap it. The situation is analogous to temporal and spatial regions.
(iff (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ImmaterialEntity a) (exists (b) (and (or (ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (OneDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion b)) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))) (not (exists (c t) (and (SpatialRegion c) (continuantPartOfAt c a t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [029-001]
immaterial
ImmaterialEntity
BFO 2 Reference: Immaterial entities are divided into two subgroups:boundaries and sites, which bound, or are demarcated in relation, to material entities, and which can thus change location, shape and size and as their material hosts move or change shape or size (for example: your nasal passage; the hold of a ship; the boundary of Wales (which moves with the rotation of the Earth) [38, 7, 10
immaterial entity
1d-cf-boundary
OneDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary
The Equator
all geopolitical boundaries
all lines of latitude and longitude
the line separating the outer surface of the mucosa of the lower lip from the outer surface of the skin of the chin.
the median sulcus of your tongue
a one-dimensional continuant fiat boundary is a continuous fiat line whose location is defined in relation to some material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [032-001])
(iff (OneDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (exists (b) (and (OneDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [032-001]
one-dimensional continuant fiat boundary
a one-dimensional continuant fiat boundary is a continuous fiat line whose location is defined in relation to some material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [032-001])
(iff (OneDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (exists (b) (and (OneDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [032-001]
process-profile
ProcessProfile
On a somewhat higher level of complexity are what we shall call rate process profiles, which are the targets of selective abstraction focused not on determinate quality magnitudes plotted over time, but rather on certain ratios between these magnitudes and elapsed times. A speed process profile, for example, is represented by a graph plotting against time the ratio of distance covered per unit of time. Since rates may change, and since such changes, too, may have rates of change, we have to deal here with a hierarchy of process profile universals at successive levels
One important sub-family of rate process profiles is illustrated by the beat or frequency profiles of cyclical processes, illustrated by the 60 beats per minute beating process of John’s heart, or the 120 beats per minute drumming process involved in one of John’s performances in a rock band, and so on. Each such process includes what we shall call a beat process profile instance as part, a subtype of rate process profile in which the salient ratio is not distance covered but rather number of beat cycles per unit of time. Each beat process profile instance instantiates the determinable universal beat process profile. But it also instantiates multiple more specialized universals at lower levels of generality, selected from rate process profilebeat process profileregular beat process profile3 bpm beat process profile4 bpm beat process profileirregular beat process profileincreasing beat process profileand so on.In the case of a regular beat process profile, a rate can be assigned in the simplest possible fashion by dividing the number of cycles by the length of the temporal region occupied by the beating process profile as a whole. Irregular process profiles of this sort, for example as identified in the clinic, or in the readings on an aircraft instrument panel, are often of diagnostic significance.
The simplest type of process profiles are what we shall call ‘quality process profiles’, which are the process profiles which serve as the foci of the sort of selective abstraction that is involved when measurements are made of changes in single qualities, as illustrated, for example, by process profiles of mass, temperature, aortic pressure, and so on.
b is a process_profile =Def. there is some process c such that b process_profile_of c (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [093-002])
b process_profile_of c holds when b proper_occurrent_part_of c& there is some proper_occurrent_part d of c which has no parts in common with b & is mutually dependent on b& is such that b, c and d occupy the same temporal region (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [094-005])
(forall (x y) (if (processProfileOf x y) (and (properContinuantPartOf x y) (exists (z t) (and (properOccurrentPartOf z y) (TemporalRegion t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion x t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion y t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion z t) (not (exists (w) (and (occurrentPartOf w x) (occurrentPartOf w z))))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [094-005]
(iff (ProcessProfile a) (exists (b) (and (Process b) (processProfileOf a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [093-002]
process profile
b is a process_profile =Def. there is some process c such that b process_profile_of c (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [093-002])
b process_profile_of c holds when b proper_occurrent_part_of c& there is some proper_occurrent_part d of c which has no parts in common with b & is mutually dependent on b& is such that b, c and d occupy the same temporal region (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [094-005])
(forall (x y) (if (processProfileOf x y) (and (properContinuantPartOf x y) (exists (z t) (and (properOccurrentPartOf z y) (TemporalRegion t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion x t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion y t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion z t) (not (exists (w) (and (occurrentPartOf w x) (occurrentPartOf w z))))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [094-005]
(iff (ProcessProfile a) (exists (b) (and (Process b) (processProfileOf a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [093-002]
r-quality
RelationalQuality
John’s role of husband to Mary is dependent on Mary’s role of wife to John, and both are dependent on the object aggregate comprising John and Mary as member parts joined together through the relational quality of being married.
a marriage bond, an instance of love, an obligation between one person and another.
b is a relational quality = Def. for some independent continuants c, d and for some time t: b quality_of c at t & b quality_of d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [057-001])
(iff (RelationalQuality a) (exists (b c t) (and (IndependentContinuant b) (IndependentContinuant c) (qualityOfAt a b t) (qualityOfAt a c t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [057-001]
relational quality
2
b is a relational quality = Def. for some independent continuants c, d and for some time t: b quality_of c at t & b quality_of d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [057-001])
(iff (RelationalQuality a) (exists (b c t) (and (IndependentContinuant b) (IndependentContinuant c) (qualityOfAt a b t) (qualityOfAt a c t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [057-001]
2d-cf-boundary
TwoDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary
a two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary (surface) is a self-connected fiat surface whose location is defined in relation to some material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [033-001])
(iff (TwoDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (exists (b) (and (TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [033-001]
two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary
a two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary (surface) is a self-connected fiat surface whose location is defined in relation to some material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [033-001])
(iff (TwoDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (exists (b) (and (TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [033-001]
0d-cf-boundary
ZeroDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary
the geographic North Pole
the point of origin of some spatial coordinate system.
the quadripoint where the boundaries of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona meet
zero dimension continuant fiat boundaries are not spatial points. Considering the example 'the quadripoint where the boundaries of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona meet' : There are many frames in which that point is zooming through many points in space. Whereas, no matter what the frame, the quadripoint is always in the same relation to the boundaries of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona.
a zero-dimensional continuant fiat boundary is a fiat point whose location is defined in relation to some material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [031-001])
(iff (ZeroDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (exists (b) (and (ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [031-001]
zero-dimensional continuant fiat boundary
zero dimension continuant fiat boundaries are not spatial points. Considering the example 'the quadripoint where the boundaries of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona meet' : There are many frames in which that point is zooming through many points in space. Whereas, no matter what the frame, the quadripoint is always in the same relation to the boundaries of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona.
requested by Melanie Courtot
a zero-dimensional continuant fiat boundary is a fiat point whose location is defined in relation to some material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [031-001])
(iff (ZeroDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (exists (b) (and (ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [031-001]
0d-t-region
ZeroDimensionalTemporalRegion
a temporal region that is occupied by a process boundary
right now
the moment at which a child is born
the moment at which a finger is detached in an industrial accident
the moment of death.
temporal instant.
A zero-dimensional temporal region is a temporal region that is without extent. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [102-001])
(forall (x) (if (ZeroDimensionalTemporalRegion x) (TemporalRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [102-001]
zero-dimensional temporal region
A zero-dimensional temporal region is a temporal region that is without extent. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [102-001])
(forall (x) (if (ZeroDimensionalTemporalRegion x) (TemporalRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [102-001]
history
History
A history is a process that is the sum of the totality of processes taking place in the spatiotemporal region occupied by a material entity or site, including processes on the surface of the entity or within the cavities to which it serves as host. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [138-001])
history
A history is a process that is the sum of the totality of processes taking place in the spatiotemporal region occupied by a material entity or site, including processes on the surface of the entity or within the cavities to which it serves as host. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [138-001])
An endocarditis caused by bacterial infection.
bacterial endocarditis
An endocarditis caused by viral infection.
viral endocarditis
An endocarditis caused by fungal infection.
fungal endocarditis
A disorder located in the heart.
heart disorder
A disorder always located in a blood vessel.
vascular disorder
A disorder always located in the endocardium.
endocardium disorder
A disorder always located in the pericardium.
Since the pericardium is not a part of the heart according to FMA, pericardium disorder is not classified as a heart disorder.
pericardium disorder
A pericarditis caused by an infection.
infectious pericarditis
A pericarditis caused by a bacterial infection.
bacterial pericarditis
A pericarditis caused by a viral infection.
viral pericarditis
A pericarditis caused by a fungal infection.
fungal pericarditis
protozoal pericarditis
A pathological process involving or occuring in the heart.
heart pathological process
A pathological process involving or occuring in the pericardium.
pericardium pathological process
A pericarditis that has an acute disease course.
acute pericarditis
A pericarditis that has a chronic disease course.
chronic pericarditis
atrioventricular block (disease)
first degree atrioventricular block (disease)
Mobitz I second degree atrioventricular block (disease)
complete heart block
third degree atrioventricular block (disease)
A disorder always loacted in the conducting tissue of the heart.
heart conduction disorder
impaired atrioventricular node
impaired right branch of atrioventricular bundle
bundle of Kent
sinoatrial block (disease)
Wenckebach block
Mobitz I second degree sinoatrial block (disease)
sinus exit block
Mobitz II second degree sinoatrial block (disease)
first degree sinoatrial block (disease)
third degree sinoatrial block (disease)
impaired sinoatrial node
heart block (disease)
impaired posterior division of left branch of atrioventricular bundle
left posterior fascicular block (disease)
infra-hisian block (disease)
left bundle branch block (disease)
A heart conduction disease characterized by cardiac arrhythmia processes.
Usual medical language does not differentiate the disease and the corresponding pathological process for the different kinds of cardiac arrhythmias. CVDO distinguishes them explicitly with the suffix '(disease)' or '(process)'.
cardiac arrhythmia (disease)
atrial fibrillation (disease)
atrial fibrillation (process)
atrial flutter (disease)
cavotricuspid isthmus dependant macroreentry tachycardia
type I atrial flutter
common atrial flutter (disease)
A pathological process of fibrosis of the cardiac atrium.
cardiac atrium fibrosis
supraventricular tachycardia (process)
bradycardia (disease)
bradycardia (process)
premature atrial contraction (disease)
left anterior fascicle
A disorder always located in a heart valve.
heart valve disorder
wandering pacemaker
A disease affecting the tricuspid valve of the heart.
tricuspid valve disease
A degenerated structure in a mitral valve leaflet due to myxomatous proliferation.
myxomatous degenerated structure in a mitral valve leaflet
A heart pathological process that has a heart valve as a participant.
This class should not be confused with 'heart valve pathological process', which are pathological processes occurring in a heart valve, rather than pathological process having as participant a heart valve.
heart pathological process involving a heart valve
mitral valve leaflet displacement into the left atrium during left ventricular systole
tricuspid valve leaflet displacement into the right atrium during right ventricular systole
aortic valve leaflet displacement into the left ventricle during left ventricular diastole
heart valve leaflet displacement into a cardiac chamber during ventricular systole
mitral valve improper close during left ventricular systole
retrograd blood flow through mitral valve during left ventricular systole
retrograd blood flow through pulmonary valve during right ventricular diastole
pulmonary valve improper close during right ventricular diastole
tricuspid valve improper close during right ventricular systole
aortic valve improper close during left ventricular diastole
retrograd blood flow through tricuspid valve during right ventricular systole
retrograd blood flow through aortic valve during left ventricular diastole
disturbed anterograd blood flow through mitral valve during left ventricular diastole
retrograd blood flow through a heart valve
disturbed anterograd blood flow through a heart valve
disturbed anterograd blood flow through tricuspid valve during right ventricular diastole
disturbed anterograd blood flow through pulmonary valve during right ventricular systole
disturbed anterograd blood flow through aortic valve during left ventricular systole
A disease in which some disorder of a heart valve prevents it from opening properly, occasioning disturbance in the anterograd blood flow through the valve.
heart valve stenosis
impaired cardiac output
pressure
blood pressure
A pathological process of highly pressured aerterial blood flow.
highly pressured arterial blood flow
A disease in which an abnormal structure in a heart valve prevents it to close propertly, occasioning a retrograd blood flow through the valve.
heart valve insufficiency
A pathological process of a heart valve closing improperly.
heart valve improper close
A disorder always located in a vein.
vein disorder
A pathological process involving or occuring in a blood vessel.
vascular pathological process
A pathological process of formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood.
thrombosis
A thrombosis occurring in a deep vein.
deep vein thrombosis
A pathological process of an artery hardening.
artery hardening
A pathological process of formation of atheromous plaques in an artery.
atheromous plaque formation in artery
A pathological process of lodging of an embolus in a blood vessel.
embolism
A disorder of localized, blood-filled balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel.
aneurysm (disorder)
ischemic disease
compression disease
An atrial fibrillation disease that is characterized by an atrial fibrillation episode longer than 7 days which does not terminate by cardioversion.
permanent atrial fibrillation
A pathological process of dilatation of the myocardium of a right cardiac ventricle.
right ventricular myocardium dilatation
A pathological process of an aneurysm rupturing.
aneurysm rupture
A disorder always located in the mycoardium.
myocardium disorder
A cardiomyopathy whose etiological process includes a stressful or emotional situation, characterized by transient ventricular apical wall motion abnormalities (ballooning).
Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy is not a dilated cardiomyopathy in Elliott et al.'s (2008) classification.
Tako Tsubo cardiomyopathy
"A cardiomyopathy characterized by prominent left ventricular trabeculae and deep inter-trabecular recesses. The myocardial wall is often thickened with a thin, compacted epicardial layer and a thickened endocardial layer." (Elliott et al., 2008)
noncompaction cardiomyopathy
left ventricular noncompaction
A hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that has a genetic origin.
genetic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
A disease affecting the pericardium.
Since pericardium is not a part of heart according to FMA, pericardium disease is not classified as a heart disease.
pericardium disease
This is a dummy class not intended to be included in CVDO's final version, used to store temporarily DOID's vascular diseases that may be reclassified in the future.
vascular disease - unclassified by CVDO
A pathological process occuring in a cardiac atrium.
cardiac atrium pathological process
A pathological process occurring in a cardiac ventricle.
cardiac ventricle pathological process
A pathological process constituted by a thrombosis (creating a blood clot) and a subsequent embolism (involving the blood clot as the embolus).
thromboembolism
A necrosis of a tissue caused by a local lack of oxygen, due to an obstruction of the tissue's blood supply.
infarction
pulmonary valve leaflet displacement into the right ventricle during right ventricular diastole
A pathological process involving the blood circuation in the heart.
cardiac blood circulation pathological process
A pathological process involving the blood circulation in a blood vessel.
vascular blood circulation pathological process
part of atrial myocardium with impaired conduction